Document Type : Research Article


Assistance Professor, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shiraz University


Corporal punishment is using physical force to discipline or correct a child`s behavior so that they experience pain without any harm. Corporal punishment occurs mainly at home or at school. The present study investigated corporal punishment within the family (punishment of children by parents). Reviewing the studies conducted on corporal punishment, the present study examined factors affecting corporal punishment as well as the factors affected by corporal punishment and finally presented a conceptual model of elements and dimensions of corporal punishment applied by parents. The results of the review showed that many background and personality characteristics of both children and parents are involved in corporal punishment. The use of corporal punishment can result in behavioral problems in children both at individual and social levels and all this is influenced by the culture of a society. And since there are some religious instructions regarding the disciplining of children in their religious culture, corporal punishment is not prohibited in Muslim societies. Furthermore, there are some limits and conditions which are difficult to observe.


Main Subjects

  1. ابوالقاسمی، شهلا؛ داودی، تمنا؛ «تنبیه از دیدگاه روانشناسی و اسلام»، اسلام و پژوهش­های تربیتی، 1389، سال دوم، شماره 2.
  2. امینی، ابراهیم؛ آیین تربیت، تهران، انتشارات اسلامی،1362.
  3. _______ ؛  اسلام و تعلیم و تربیت، قم، مؤسسه بوستان کتاب، 1387.
  4. قاسمی، فاطمه؛ ولی زاده، فاطمه؛ طولایی، طاهره؛ ساکی، ماندانا؛ بررسی برخی مشکلاترفتاریناشی ازتنبیهبدنی توسط والدیندرکودکاندبستانی، فصلنامه علمی پژوهشی یافته - دانشگاه علوم پزشکی لرستان، 1386، دوره نهم، شماره 4.



  1. -Aucoin, K.J., Frick, P.J. & Bodin, S; 2006, Corporal punishment and child adjustment, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27, pp. 527-541.
  2. -Chang, H., Olson, S. L.,Sameroff. A. J. & Sexton. H.R; 2011, Child effortful control as a mediator of parenting practices on externalizing behavior: Evidence for a sex-differentiated pathway across the transition from preschool to school, J Abnorm Child Psychol, 39, pp.71-81.
  3. -Cope, K.C; 2010, The age of discipline: the relevance of age to the reasonableness of corporal punishment, Law and Contemporary Problems,73, pp.167-187.
  4. -Deater-Deckard, K., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S; 1996, Physical discipline among African American and European American mothers: Links to children's externalizing behaviors, Developmental Psychology, 32, 1065-1072.
  5. -Durrant. J.E; 1999, Evaluation the success of Sweden`s corporal punishment ban,Child Abuse & Neglect, 23(5), pp. 435-448.
  6. -Dwyer, J.G;  2010, Parental entitlement and corporal punishment, Law and Contemporary Problems,73, pp. 189-210.
  7. Frias-Armenta, M. & McCloskey, L.A; 1998, Determinants of harsh parenting in Mexico, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26(2), pp. 129-139.
  8. -Gamez-Guadix. M., Straus.M.A., Carrobles. J.A; Munoz-Rivas. M. &Almendros. C; 2010, Corporal punishment and long-term behavior problems: The moderating role of positive parenting and psychological aggression, Psicolhema, 22(4), pp. 529-536.
  9. -Gershoff, E. T; 2002, Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: A meta-analytic and theoretical review, Psychological Bulletin, 128, pp. 539-579.
  10. -Harper. F.W.K., Brown. A.M., Arias. I. & Brody. G; 2006, Corporal punishment and kids: how do parent support and gender influence child adjustment?, Journal of Family Violence, 21( 3), pp. 197-207.
  11. -Lansford. J.E& Dodge. K.A; 2008, Cultural norms for adult corporal punishment of children and societal rates of endorsement and use of violence, Parenting: Science and Practice, 8, pp. 257-270.
  12. -Larzelere. R. & Baumrind. D; 2010, Are spanking junctions scientifically supported?, Law and Contemporary Problems, 73(57), pp.57-87.
  13. -Olson, S. L., Sameroff, A. J., Kerr, D. C. R., Lopez, N. L., & Wellman, H. M; 2005, Developmental foundations of externalizing problems in young children: The role of effortful control, Development and Psychopathology, 17, pp. 25-45.
  14. -Oveisi. S., Eftekhare Ardabili. H., Majdzadeh.R., Mohammadkhani. P., Alaqband Rad.,J & Loo; 2010, J.Mothers’ Attitudes Toward Corporal Punishment of Children in Qazvin-Iran, Journal of Family Violence , 25, pp.159-164.
  15. -Straus, M.A; 2010, Prevalence, societal causes, and trends in corporal punishment by parents in world perspective, Law and Contemporary Problems, 73, pp.1-30.
  16. -Straus, M.A; 2001, Beating the devil out of them: Corporal punishment in American families and its effects on children,New Brunswick, NJ, US: Transaction Publishers.
  17. -Straus, M. A; 1994, Beating the devil out of them: Corporal punishment in American families, New York: Lexington Books.
  18. -Straus, M.A., & Stewart, J.H; 1999, Corporal punishment by American parents: National data on prevalence, chronicity, severity and duration, in relation to child and family characteristics, Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2, pp.55-70.
  19. -Straus, M. A., & Kaufman-Kantor, G; 1994, Corporal punishment of adolescents by parents: A risk factor in the epidemiology of depression, suicide, alcohol abuse, child abuse, and wife beating. Adolescence, 29, pp. 543-561.
  20. -Turner, H. A., and Finkelhor; 1996, DCorporal punishment as a stressor among youth, J. Marriage Fam. 58, pp. 155-166.