نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه شیراز

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد حقوق بین الملل، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

این مقاله به بررسی تأثیر متقابل حقوق بشر و صلح بر یکدیگر می‌پردازد. تجربه تاریخی جوامع بشری نشان داده است که صلح و حقوق بشر ارتباط تنگاتنگ با یکدیگر داشته‌اند. چنین تجربه‌ای در دوران معاصر به گونه‌ای رشد و توسعه یافته است که ملت‌ها و دولت‌های جهان به این باور رسیده‌اند که حقوق بشر و صلح لازم و ملزوم یکدیگر هستند؛ به گونه‌ا‌ی که نمی‌توان بدون رعایت حقوق بشر به صلح واقعی و پایدار دست یافت؛ و بدون وجود صلح نیز نمی‌توان انتظار داشت که حقوق بشر به طور کامل مورد احترام و رعایت قرار گیرد. از سویی دیگر در دوران معاصر این ارتباط به گونه‌ای رشد و توسعه نموده است که برخورداری از صلح خود به عنوان یکی از نمونه‌های برجسته نسل سوم حقوق بشر مطرح بوده و حق برخورداری از صلح به عنوان یکی از حقوق بنیادین بشر مطرح شده است؛ به گونه‌ای که تحقق عملی دیگر حقوق بشر وابسته به وجود آن در نظر گرفته می‌شود. به بیانی دیگر حق برخورداری از صلح اساس دیگر حقوق بشر را تشکیل می‌دهد؛ چرا که بدون تحقق حق برخورداری از صلح امکان اجرای نسل اول حقوق بشر (حقوق مدنی و سیاسی) و نسل دوم حقوق بشر(حقوق اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی) و حتی نسل سوم حقوق بشر (حقوقی همچون حق توسعه و حق برخورداری از محیط زیست شایسته) وجود ندارد.
در این راستا است که این مقاله با بررسی اسناد بین‌المللی همچون منشور سازمان ملل متحد، اعلامیه جهانی حقوق بشر، میثاق‌های بین‌المللی سازمان ملل متحد راجع به حقوق بشر، قطعنامه‌های مربوطه مجمع عمومی سازمان ملل متحد (به ویژه اعلامیه حق مردمان در برخورداری از صلح - قطعنامه 11/39 مورخ 12 نوامبر 1984 میلادی، و قطعنامه ترویج صلح به عنوان یک الزام اساسی برای برخورداری کامل همگان از تمامی حقوق بشر - قطعنامه 163/62 مورخ 18 دسامبر 2007میلادی)، و قطعنامه‌های مربوطه کمیسیون حقوق بشر و شورای حقوق بشر نشان می‌دهد که چگونه حقوق بشر و صلح به عنوان مفاهیمی وابسته به یکدیگر در نظر گرفته شده‌اند به گونه‌ای که تحقق یکی، بدون دیگری به طور کامل امکان‌پذیر نمی‌باشد. در نهایت این مقاله نتیجه می‌گیرد که احترام به حقوق بشر و رعایت کامل این حقوق بدون صلح امکان‌پذیر نمی‌باشد و دستیابی به صلح پایدار و واقعی نیز بدون احترام به حقوق بشر و رعایت کامل این حقوق امکان‌پذیر نمی‌باشد. بر این اساس همه ملت‌ها و دولت‌ها باید کوشش نمایند تا از طریق احترام بیشتر به حقوق بشر در جهت تأمین و تقویت صلح در جهان بکوشند و با خودداری از اقداماتی که صلح و امنیت بین‌المللی را به خطر می‌اندازند نقش خود را در جهت تحقق کامل حقوق بشر در سطح جهان ایفاء نمایند. بدیهی است در جهانی که دولت‌ها در صلح و آرامش با یکدیگر به سر می‌برند، حقوق بشر پویاتر و مؤثرتر مورد احترام و رعایت قرار خواهد گرفت و در چنین جامعه جهانی است که منافع همه ملت‌ها تأمین و تضمین خواهند شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

A Study of Mutual Effects of Human Rights and Peace

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farhad Talaie 1
  • Farzaneh Poursaeed 2

1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Shiraz University

2 M.A of International Law, Shiraz University

چکیده [English]

This paper studies how human rights and peace affect each other. The historical experiences of human societies have indicated that peace and human rights have had close connections to each other. These experiences have developed in the modern times so that nations and states are in the view that human rights and peace are complementary. Accordingly, achieving real and sustainable peace is impossible without respecting human rights and it cannot expect that human rights are fully respected if there is no peace. This interrelation has developed nowadays in a way that today the right to peace has become one of the examples of the third generation of human rights and a fundamental human right.  This means that it is not possible to realise other human rights without realising such a right. In other words, the right to peace constitutes the basis of other human rights. This is because the first generation of human rights (that is civil and political rights) and the second generation of human rights (that is economic, social and cultural rights) and even the third generation of human rights (such as the right to development and the right to a healthy environment) cannot be realised if the right to peace is not respected. It is in this context that this paper examines such documents as the Charter of the United Nations (UN), The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the UN Covenants on Human Rights, related resolutions of the UN general Assembly (in particular Declaration on the Rights ofPeople to Peace – Resolution 39/11, 12 November 1984, and Resolution on Promotion of Peace as a Vital Requirement for the Full Enjoyment of All Human Rights by All –Resolution 62/163, 18 December 2007) and resolutions of  the UN Human Rights Commission and of the UN Human Rights Council in order to demonstrate how human rights and peace have been considered as dependent on each other so that the existence of one depends on the existence of the other. Finally, this paper concludes that full respect of human rights is not possible without peace and it is impossible to achieve sustainable and real peace in the world without fully respecting human rights. Accordingly, nations and states should make their best efforts to strengthen peace in the world through respecting human rights and to pave the way for realisation of human rights in the world by maintaining international peace and security. It is certain that human rights can be respected more effectively when states are in peace with each other. It is in such universal society that the interests of all nations are guaranteed and safeguarded.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • human rights
  • Right to Peace
  • The UN General Assembly
  • The UN Security Council
  • The UN Commission on Human Rights
  • The UN Human Rights Council
  • The UN Educational
  • Scientific
  • and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)
  • The International Labour Organisation (ILO)

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