نویسنده

استاد حقوق، دانشگاه هاروارد

چکیده

نویسنده در این مقاله با مرور مباحث صورت گرفته در باره مبانی حقوق بشر، در کمیسیون تدوین کننده پیش نویس اعلامیه جهانی حقوق بشر، خاطر نشان می‌سازد که به دلیل شرایط آن زمان، اعضای کمیسیون بحث چندانی درباره مبانی نظری حقوق بشر انجام نداند و بحث از آن را به وقت دیگری واگذار کردند. وی ایده غربی بودن اعلامیه حقوق بشر را رد می‌کند و برعکس، آن‌را حاصل تعامل فرهنگ ها و سنت‌های گوناگون می‌داند. مقاله آنگاه به این پرسش پاسخ می‌دهد که چگونه ممکن است در فرهنگ های متنوع، حقوق جهانی وجود داشته باشد و در ادامه به تبیین مسابقه برای ساختارشکنی اعلامیه می‌پردازد و در پایان چالش پیش روی اعلامیه را عدم انسجام آن و وجود معانی و تفسیرهای مختلف از «کرامت» انسان می‌داند. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Foundations of Human Rights: The Unfinished Business

نویسنده [English]

  • Mary Ann Glendon

Professor of Law, Harvard University

چکیده [English]

Reviewing the discussions on the foundations of human rights that took place in the U.N.'s first Human Rights Commission to draft the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the author points out that the Commissioners, due to the situation at that time, had few discussions on the foundations of human rights and left the problem of foundations for another day. She rejects the idea that the Universal Declaration is western believing that all effective cultures in the world had a creative hand in the shaping of the document. The article then answers the question that how there can be universal rights in diverse cultures. It continues to explain the derby to deconstruct the Declaration and in the end concludes that the challenge of the Declaration is its incoherence and the different meanings and interpretations of human “dignity”.
s but also seriously damage the hard gained doctor-patient trust and the historical honor of their profession.
 
   Within the law and justice system in practice in the Islamic Republic of Iran, fee splitting in considered unacceptable and illegal and fee splitters may be pursued by law. The same is true in different societies and most medical councils and accepted ethical codes and guidelines. It is clearly stated in the fifth paragraph of the medical affidavit vowed by all Iranian medical students and doctors that fee splitting is considered amoral and even illegal and that healthcare and medical practices are not to be used as a means of gathering wealth for oneself. All Islamic religious leaders have also questioned the lawfulness of money and wealth earned by fee splitting. The act of fee splitting is also recognized as unethical and unlawful in the guidelines and codes affected by universal medicine societies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Foundations of Human Rights
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  • Universal Rights
  • Human Dignity

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  12. Mary Ann Glendon, Michael Gordon, and Christopher Osakwe, Comparative Legal Traditions, 2d ed. St. Paul, Minn: West, 1994,pp: 58-62.
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