نویسنده

استادیار گروه حقوق، دانشگاه مفید

چکیده

حق بر سلامتی در زمره حق‌های بنیادین بشری است که در نظام بین‌المللی حقوق بشر بهرسمیت شناخته شده است. با این وجود، مفهوم و محتوای این حق، و نیز تعهدات دولت‌ها در دو سطح ملی و بین‌المللی در زمینه تحقق آن به خوبی بررسی نشده است. این نوشته تلاشی است در واکاوی جایگاه، مفهوم و محتوای حق بر سلامتی و نشان دادن ابعاد و قلمرو تعهدات دولت‌ها در تحقق آن.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Right to Health in International Human Rights Law

نویسنده [English]

  • Mohammad Habibi Mojandeh

Assistant Professor of Law, Mofid University

چکیده [English]

Right to health is among the basic and fundamental human rights recognized in international human rights law. This notwithstanding, the concept and content of the right and the corresponding State obligations are yet to be outlined.
The Article is an attempt to examine the status (1), the concept (2), and the content of the right to health (3) and to study the scope of State obligation with regard to the realization of the right (4).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Right to Health
  • International Human Rights Law
  • Economic
  • Social and Cultural Rights

  1. African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Adopted by the Organization of African Unity, 27 June 1981, entered into force 21 October 1986.
  2. American Convention on Human Rights (adopted 22 November 1969, entered into force 18 July 1978), 1144 UNTS 123, OAS TS 36.
  3. Commission on Human Rights, The Right of Everyone to the Enjoyment of the Highest Attainable Standard of Physical and Mental Health, Report of the Special Rapporteur, Paul Hunt, E/CN.4/2003/58, 13 Feb. 2003.
  4. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, The Nature of States Parties’ Obligations (Article 2, para. 1), General Comment 3, 14/12/90, UN Doc. E/1991/23, Annex III, UN ESCOR, Supp. (No. 3), available at United Nations Human Rights Website, Treaty Bodies Database,  Document, General Comment.
  5. Constitution of the World Health Organization, 14 U.N.T.S. 186, 22 July 1946 (entered into force 7 April 1948), reprinted in Basic Documents of the WHO (32d ed. Geneva, 1981).
  6. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, UN General Assembly Resolution 34/180 (18 December 1979), UN GAOR, 34th Session, Supp. No 46, UN Doc A/Res/34/36 (entered into force 3 September 1981), 1249 UNTS 13.
  7. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, UN General Assembly Resolution 2106 A (XX) (21 December 1965), U.N. GAOR, 20th Session, Supp. No 14, at 47, UN Doc A/6014 (1965), 660 UNTS 195, 222 (entered into force 4 January 1969).
  8. Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted by UN General Assembly Resolution 44/25 (20 November 1989) entered into force 2 September 1990.
  9. Declaration on the Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in Accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, GA Resn. 2625 (XXV) (24 Oct. 1970), 25 UN GAOR, Resns. Supp. (No. 28) (1970).
  10. European Social Charter, opened for signature 18 Oct. 1961, art. 11, Europ. T.S. No. 38 (entered into force 26 Feb. 1965), reprinted in Human Rights Documents 212 (Committee on Foreign Affairs ed., 1983).
  11. General Comment 14, Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, The right to the highest attainable standard of health, U.N. Doc. E/C.12/2000/4 (2000), available at www.unhchr.ch.
  12. General Comment No. 11, Action Plans for Primary Education, Article 14 of the Covenant, E/C.12.
  13. The Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, signed by the Organization of the Islamic Conference on 5 August 1990.
  14. The Declaration on the Right to Development, GA Resn. 41/128 (4 Dec. 1986).
  15. The UN Millenium Declaration, UN General Assembly Resolution, A/Res/55/2, 18 September 2000.
  16. “World Health Organization”, in: Global Strategy for Health for All by the Year 2000 (1981).
  17. Pellet, Article 55: alineas a et b, in La Charte des Nations Unies, 841, at 843 (Cot and Pellet ed. 1985).
  18. Boutros-Ghali, B., UN Secretary General, Introduction to: “The United Nations and Human Rights, 1945-1995”, New York: UN Department of Public Information, 1995.
  19. Craven, Matthew, The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Oxford, 1998.
  20. Eide, Asbjorn and Wench Barth Eide, Article 25, in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: A Common Standard of Achievement (Gudmundur Alfredsson and Asbjorn Eide, eds.), Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1999.
  21. Encyclopedia Britannica, vol. 8, The University of Chicago, 1976, pp. 687-688.
  22. Steiner, Henry J. and Alston,Philip,  International Human Rights in Context, Oxford, 2nd ed. (2000).
  23. ICJ, Advisory Opinion on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, ILM 35 (1996), 809.
  24. Jamar, Steven D., The International Human Right to Health, 22 Southern U. L. Rev. 1 (1994).
  25. Peter Malanczuk, Akehurst’s Modern Introduction to International Law, 7th ed., Routledge, 1997.
  26. Alston, Philip, International Law and the Right to Food, in P. Alston and K. Tomasevski (eds.), The Right to Food (1984).
  27. Toebes, Brigit, Towards an Improved Understanding of the International Human Right to Health, 21 HRQ 661 (1999).
  28. International Commission of Jurists (ICJ), Right to Health Database, Preliminary Proposal, 2002, cited in Commission on Human Rights, The right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Report of the Special Rapporteur, Paul Hunt, submitted in accordance with Commission resolution 2002/31, E/CN.4/2003/58.

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