نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار حقوق ، دانشگاه غیر انتفاعی جیندال، سیناپوت، هند.

چکیده

در تاریخ آمریکا، «بدن سیاه» هم در دوران برده‌داری و هم در دوره معاصر کالایی بوده است که مدیریت خصوصی زندان‌ها تا حدی موجب حبس گسترده سیاه‌پوستان شده است. لغو برده‌داری در حدود 150 سال پیش در مقایسه با 400 سالی که مورد استفاده قرار گرفته هنوز نسبتاً جدید است. بنابراین، برخی از رفتارهای شنیع صاحبان برده به سیستم عدالت کیفری منتقل شده و باعث شده است پلیس، هیئت منصفه، قضات و غیره در رفتار با همتایان سفیدپوست خود و مردم سیاه‌پوست نابرابر و غیرعادلانه رفتار کنند. از «اقدامات شیاطین عصیانگر» در دوران برده‌داری گرفته تا پوشش رسانه‌ای نژادپرستانه وحشیگری پلیس علیه سیاه‌پوستان، اعتراضات سیاه‌پوستان، رفتار با مظنونان جنایی و غیره، مشخص شده است که رسانه‌های جمعی آمریکا نقش مهمی در حفظ ساختارهای نژادپرستانه عمیقی دارند که موجب حبس گسترده سیاه‌پوستان شده است. این نوشتار برخی از اقدامات تاریخی علیه سیاه‌پوستان را با شیوه‌های نژادپرستانه معاصر پیوند می‌زند تا نشان دهد که برده‌داری همچنان در آمریکا زنده است و به‌طور مشخص از طریق سیستم عدالت آشکار می‌شود. هدف این نوشتار، تقویت بحث‌های جاری درباره نابودی بقایای برده‌داری در آمریکاست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Blackness in America and the Presumption of Innocence: How the American Police and Mass Media Poisoned Everything

نویسنده [English]

  • Williams Iheme

Associate Professor of Law, O.P Jindal Global University, Sinopat, India.

چکیده [English]

In American history, the ‘Black body’ has been commodified both during the slavery era and in the contemporary period whereby the private management of prisons has partly resulted to mass Black incarceration. The abolition of slavery some 150 years ago is still fairly recent compared to the 400 years it was practiced: thus some of the heinous treatments by slave owners were carried over into the criminal justice system, causing the police, jury, judges, etc., to treat Black people unequally and unfairly compared to their White counterparts. From the ‘proceedings of the rebellious negroes’ in the slavery era to the racialized media coverages of police brutality against Black people, Black protests, treatment of criminal suspects, etc., the American mass media have been identified as playing a major role in the maintenance of the deep racist structures that perpetuate mass Black incarceration. This paper links up some historical practices against Black people with the contemporary racist practices in order to show that slavery is still functionally alive in America and manifests concretely through the justice system: this paper aims at amplifying the ongoing debates toward obliterating the remnants of slavery in America.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Black people
  • racism
  • Presumption of Innocence
  • Mass Media
  • police brutality
  • prison
  • protests
  1. A) Books & Articles
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  • Fage, J.D. (1969). “Slavery and the Slave Trade in the Context of West African History”, The Journal of African History, 10, No. 3, pp. 393 - 404. 
  • Hart, R., (2002). Slaves Who Abolished Slavery, Mona: University of the West Indies.
  • Havens, T., (2013). Black Television Travels African American Media around the Globe, New York: New York University Press.
  • Hurwitz, J., & Peffley, M. (2010). “And Justice for Some: Race, Crime, and Punishment in the US Criminal Justice System”, Canadian Journal of Political Science, 43, No. 2, pp. 457– 479.
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  • Manning, P., (1990). Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades, New York: Cambridge University Press.
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  • McNamarah, CT., (2019). “White Caller Crime: Racialized Police Communication and Existing While Black”, Michigan Journal of Race and Law, 24, p. 335.
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  • Perry, E.F., (2009). “Kidnapping: An Underreported Aspect of African Agency During the Slave Trade Era (1440- 1886)”, Ufahamu: A Journal of African Studies, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 1-33.
  • Thompson, V.B., (1987). The Making of the African Diaspora, New York: Longman Inc.
  • Thornton, J., (1992). Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800, New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Williams, E., (1944). Capitalism and Slavery, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

 

  1. B) Websites

Orecchio-Egresitz, H., (23 October 2020). A 17-year-old white supremacist apologized for her plot to attack a black Georgia church and was sentenced to juvenile detention. Business Insider. Retried from https://www.businessinsider.in/international/news/a-17-year-old-white-supremacist-apologized-for-her-plot-to-attack-a-black-georgia-church-and-was-sentenced-to-juvenile-detention/articleshow/78833398.cms

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