In American history, the ‘Black body’ has been commodified both during the slavery era and in the contemporary period whereby the private management of prisons has partly resulted to mass Black incarceration. The abolition of slavery some 150 years ago is still fairly recent compared to the 400 years it was practiced: thus some of the heinous treatments by slave owners were carried over into the criminal justice system, causing the police, jury, judges, etc., to treat Black people unequally and unfairly compared to their White counterparts. From the ‘proceedings of the rebellious negroes’ in the slavery era to the racialized media coverages of police brutality against Black people, Black protests, treatment of criminal suspects, etc., the American mass media have been identified as playing a major role in the maintenance of the deep racist structures that perpetuate mass Black incarceration. This paper links up some historical practices against Black people with the contemporary racist practices in order to show that slavery is still functionally alive in America and manifests concretely through the justice system: this paper aims at amplifying the ongoing debates toward obliterating the remnants of slavery in America.
Adamson, B., (2016). “Thugs, Crooks, and Rebellious Negroes: Racist and Racialized Media Coverage of Michael Brown and the Ferguson Demonstrations”, Harvard Journal on Racial & Ethnic Justice, 32, p.189.
Allain, J., (2007). “The Nineteenth Century Law of the Sea and the British Abolition of the Slave Trade”, British Yearbook of International Law, 78, No. 1, pp. 342–388.
Appleman, L., (2018). “Cashing in on Convicts: Privatization, Punishment, and the People”, Utah Law Review, 2018, No.3, p.579.
Copeland, DA., (1997). Colonial American Newspapers: Character and Content, Newark: University of Delaware Press.
Curtin, P.D., (1967). Africa Remembered: Narratives by West Africans from the Era of the Slave Trade, Illinois: Waveland Press, Inc., Long Grove.
Lee, C., (2015). “A New Approach to Voire Dire to Racial Bias”, UC Irvine Law Review, Vol. 5, p. 843.
Davis, D., (2006). Inhuman Bondage: the Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World, London: Oxford University Press.
Desrochers, R.E., Jr., (2013). “Periphery as Center: Slavery, Identity, and the Commercial Press in the British Atlantic, 1704-1765”, In British North America in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries 170-194 (chap. 6), Foster (ed), London: Oxford University Press.
Eltis, D. (2001). “The Volume and Structures of the Transatlantic Slave Trade: a Reassessment”, William and Mary Quarterly, 58, p.17.
Fage, J.D. (1969). “Slavery and the Slave Trade in the Context of West African History”, The Journal of African History, 10, No. 3, pp. 393 - 404.
Hart, R., (2002). Slaves Who Abolished Slavery, Mona: University of the West Indies.
Havens, T., (2013). Black Television Travels African American Media around the Globe, New York: New York University Press.
Hurwitz, J., & Peffley, M. (2010). “And Justice for Some: Race, Crime, and Punishment in the US Criminal Justice System”, Canadian Journal of Political Science, 43, No. 2, pp. 457– 479.
Klein, H., (1999). The Atlantic Slave Trade, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Manning, P., (1990). Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Marx, K., (1967). Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, New York: International Publishers.
McNamarah, CT., (2019). “White Caller Crime: Racialized Police Communication and Existing While Black”, Michigan Journal of Race and Law, 24, p. 335.
Iheme, W. (2020). Blackness in America and the Presumption of Innocence: How the American Police and Mass Media Poisoned Everything. The Journal of Human Rights, 15(2), 153-174. doi: 10.22096/hr.2020.130966.1232
Williams Iheme. "Blackness in America and the Presumption of Innocence: How the American Police and Mass Media Poisoned Everything". The Journal of Human Rights, 15, 2, 2020, 153-174. doi: 10.22096/hr.2020.130966.1232
Iheme, W. (2020). 'Blackness in America and the Presumption of Innocence: How the American Police and Mass Media Poisoned Everything', The Journal of Human Rights, 15(2), pp. 153-174. doi: 10.22096/hr.2020.130966.1232
Iheme, W. Blackness in America and the Presumption of Innocence: How the American Police and Mass Media Poisoned Everything. The Journal of Human Rights, 2020; 15(2): 153-174. doi: 10.22096/hr.2020.130966.1232