نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استاد دپارتمان علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه مفید، قم، ایران.

چکیده

جماعت گرایی به عنوان یکی از مکاتب مهم فلسفه سیاسی شناخته می­شود. در واقع، این عنوانی است که اساًساً مخالفان ایشان به آن­ها عطا کرده ­اند. در عین حال، مفاهیمی همچون «جماعت»، «سنت» و «خود» بین ایشان اشتراک دارد. علاوه بر آن، جماعت گرایان در نقد لیبرالیسم نیز هم داستان هستند، هرچند اختلافاتی بین خود ایشان نیز دیده می­شود.
از آن جا که جماعت ­گرایی به جهان فلسفه تحلیلی، که بر زبان و منطق تأکید دارد، متعلق است، انتظار مـی­رود بر متـن بیش از زمینـه نظـر داشتـه باشـد. از سویـی دیگر، تأکید بر «سنت» و «این‌جا و اکنون» نشان می­دهد که به نوعی محلی گرا هستند و به زمینه بی ­وجه نیستند. همان گونه که جهانمشول گرایی به اشتراک ملاک­ها و ارزش­ها بین فرهنگ­های مختلف نظر دارد، جماعت ­گرایی و زمینه ­گرایی به اقتضائات تاریخی و بومی توجه دارند. این مقاله درصدد نشان دادن این مطلب است که مطلب فوق در اندیشه جماعت‌گرایان به ابهام برگزار شده و از نظر روش شناختی، باید راه سومی بین متن و زمینه برگزیده شود. از دیدگاه نویسنده، نه تنها غنی ­سازی مفاهیم لیبرالی، از جمله حقوق بشر جهانشمول، ممکن است، بلکه این مسئله با تنوع فرهنگی و نوعی نسبی­ گرایی نیز پیوند می­خورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Communitarianism between Text and Context

نویسنده [English]

  • Seyed Sadegh Haghighat

Professor, Department of Political Science, Mofid University, Qom, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Communitarianism is considered as one of the most pivotal schools of thought in contemporary normative political theories. In fact, it is a label for a group of people who share common characteristics such as critiques on liberalism, and some concepts like “community”, “tradition” and “self”. Since most communitarians belong to the analytical philosophy, which focus on language and logic, they could not be regarded as contextualists. On the other hand, their analysis is related to “tradition”, “here and now”, and “particularism” which denotes the importance of historical, political and sociological situation. It seems that not only the enrichment of morality and human rights in communitarianism is possible, but also it implies somehow relationship with context, cultural diversity and relativism. It seems that communitarianism needs a “third way” between text and context.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Communitarianism
  • Community
  • Self
  • Particularism
  • human rights
  • Textualism
  • Contextualism
  • Bibliography

    A) Books & Articles

    • An-Naim, A. (1992). “Toward a Cross-Cultural Approach to Defining International Standards of Human Rights: The Meaning of Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment”, in Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: A Quest for Consensus, An-Naim, (ed.), Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    • Audi, Robert (1995). The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Barber, Benjamin (1998). A Place for us: How to Make Society Civil and Democracy Strong, New York: Hill and Wang.
    • Bok, Sissela (1995). Common Values, Columbia: University of Missouri Press.
    • Frazer, Elizabeth (2000). The Problems of Communitarian Politics, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Gregg, Benjamin (2003). Thick Moralities, Thin Politics: Social Integration across Communities of Belief, Durham: Duke University Press.
    • Haghighat, Seyed Sadegh (2019). Political Philosophy and Methodology, Tehran: Kavir Publication. [In Persian]
    • Kymlicka, W. (1989). Liberalism, Community and Culture, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    • Leaman, Oliver (2005). “Rights and Religion: a False Dichotomy”, in: Theoretical Foundations of Human Rights, Qom: Mofid University Press.
    • MacIntyre, Alasdair (1983). After Virtue, Indiana: Univ. of Notre- Dame Press.
    • MacIntyre, Alasdair (1988). Whose Justice, Which Rationality?, Indiana: Univ. of Notre- Dame Press.
    • Melé, Domènec & Sánchez-Runde, Carlos (2013). “Cultural Diversity and Universal Ethics in a Global World”, Journal of Business Ethics, 116, pp. 681–687.
    • O’Neill, William (Fall 2006). “Thick or Thin? Ethical Criticism”, CDSP, No 116.
    • Tavassoli, H. (2007). Communitarians and the Critique of Liberalism, Qom: Academy of Islamic Sciences and Culture.
    • Taylor, Charles (1985). Philosophy and the Human Sciences: Philosophical Papers 2, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Walzer, Michael (1983). Spheres of Justice, New York: Basic Books.
    • Walzer, Michael (1994). Thick and Thin: Moral Argument at Home and Abroad, London: University of Notre Dame Press.

    B) Documents

    • Cha'are Shalom ve Tsedek v. France (App. No. 00027417/95).
    • Freethought Society, of Greater Philadelphia v. Chester County 334 F.3D 247.
    • Hasan and Chaush v. Bulgaria (App. No. 00030985/96).
    • Indian Civil Rights Act, 25 U.S.C. §§ 1301-03.
    • Kokkinakis v Greece (App. No. 00014307/88).
    • Larissis and others v Greece (App. No. 00023372/94; 00026377/94; 00026378/94).
    • Metropolitan Church of Bessarabia and others v. Moldova (App. No. 00045701/99).
    • Refah Partisi (the Welfare Party) and Others v. Turkey (Applications nos. 41340/98, 41342/98, 41343/98 and 41344/98), judgment, 13 February 2003.
    • Refah Partisi (The Welfare Party) and Others v. Turkey, (Applications nos. 41340/98, 41342/98, 41343/98 and 41344/98) Judgment, 31 July 2001.
    • Reynolds v. U.S. 98 U.S. 145.
    • Santa Clara Pueblo v. Martinez, 436 U.S. 49, 59 (1978).
    • Serbian Eastern Orthodox Diocese v. Milivojevich, 426 U.S. 696.
    • Serif v. Greece (App. No. 00038178/97).
    • The Cherokee Nation vs. the State of Georgia, 30 U.S. 1 (Mem), 5 Pet. 1, 8 L.Ed. 25.
    • Universal Declaration of Human Rights, A. res. 217A (III), U.N. Doc A/810 at 71 (1948).

    C) Websites

    • Etzioni, Amitai (2015). “Communitarianism”, in: The Encyclopedia of Political Thought, Michael T. Gibbon (ed), New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: https://icps.gwu.edu/sites/icps.gwu.edu/files/downloads/Communitarianism.Etzioni.pdf
    • The Communitarian Network (2010-01-14 at the Wayback Machine), Responsive Communitarian Platform Text: https://communitariannetwork.org //RCP%20text.html
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