نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

در این مقاله چارچوبی برای ارزیابی شریعت در قانون اسلامی به توجه به حقوق بشر بین ­المللی ارائه می­شود. در این مقاله چنین استدلال می­شود که برخی از معیارهای جهانی حقوق بشر و آزادی ­ها، بر اساس آنچه که در اسناد بین ­المللی حقوق بشر درک و تدوین شده است، فاقد معادل دقیق در قوانین اسلامی هستند و برخی از اصول پذیرفته شده شریعت با اصول متناظر در حقوق بشر بین ­المللی مغایرت دارد. پاسخ شریعت به ایده حقوق بشر و تفسیر سنتی قانون اسلامی به سختی با هنجارها و موازین بین ­المللی حقوق بشر سازگار است. همچنین ادعا می شود که اجرای شریعت و به طور خاص قوانین عمومی و کیفری، مشکل ساز است و منجر به ناکارایی و سختی در جوامع اسلامی می­شود. این مقاله به بحث در مورد اصلاح طلبی اسلامی و حقوق بشر کمک می­کند تا بتواند از تناقض شریعت با موازین بین­ المللی حقوق بشر جلوگیری کند و چنین بیان می­ کند که سازوکارهای سنتی اصلاحات در چارچوب شریعت برای دستیابی به درجه لازم اصلاحات کافی نیست. پیشنهاد می­شود که برای یک گفتگوی بین فرهنگی و یک بحث فکری، یک اصلاح اولیه و اساسی باید مبانی عینی حقوق بشر در عقل و کرامت انسانی را تعریف کند و نه بر اساس معیارها و مدارک شرعی.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

A System of Human Rights in Islam?

نویسنده [English]

  • Reza Eslami

Associated Professor, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

This paper advances a framework for the evaluation of Sharia (Islamic law) with respect to the modern notion of international human rights law. The paper argues that certain universal standards of human rights and freedoms, as understood and formulated in international human rights documents, lack precise equivalents in Islamic law, and some generally-accepted principles of Sharia contradict corresponding principles of international human rights law. Sharia's response to the idea of human rights and traditional interpretation of Islamic law are hard to reconcile with international human rights norms and standards. It is also argued that the application of Sharia, public and criminal law in particular, is problematic and results in deficiencies and hardship in Muslim societies. This paper contributes to the debate on Islamic reformism and human rights in arguing that Sharia's contradiction of universal human rights norms cannot be avoided, and that traditional mechanisms of reform within the framework of Sharia are inadequate for achieving the necessary degree of reform. It is suggested that, based on a cross-cultural dialogue and intellectual debate, an essential and primary reform should define the objective foundations of human rights in reason and human dignity, not on Sharia criteria and qualifications.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Islamic Law
  • Sharia
  • Islam
  • human rights
  • dignity
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    1. B) Documents

     

    • UN Doc. A/C. 3/39/SR. 65, Para. 95.

     

    1. C) Website
    • Hersch, Jeanne (1986). Le droit d’être un home, UNESCO; Available At: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000219297.
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