نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه فلسفه، دانشگاه گلف

چکیده

در سال‌های اخیر وضعیت قانونی حقوق اقلیت‌ها به عنوان بخشی از حقوق بشر به صورت گسترده توسط نظریه پردازان سیاسی مورد بحث قرار گرفته است. در این زمینه، مساله حق بر زبان اقلیت‌ها یک موضوع داغ در اغلب مباحث حاکم بر ادعاهای فرهنگی می‌باشد. نظریه‌های اصلی سیاسی بر اساس دیدگاهشان نسبت به یک مدل مناسب از ارتباطات سیاسی، رویکردهای متفاوتی نسبت به این موضوع دارند. تساوی گرایان لیبرال در حالی   براهمیت آرمان‌های لیبرالی از جمله بی طرفی و استقلال در تصمیم گیری سیاست‌های زبانی مناسب تاکید می‌کنند که فرهنگ گرایان لیبرال معتقد به نقش سازنده زبان و فرهنگ به منظور بهره مندی افراد از حقوق و آزادیهایشان هستند. حال این حقوق و آزادی‌ها در سیاسیت‌های زبانی مشخص می‌شود که محدودۀ آن از شناسایی و تطبیق شروع می‌شود و تا  نگهداری و حفاظت از هویت و زبان گروهی ادامه می‌یابد.
این مقاله در تلاش است با ارائه یک سیاست زبانی بر اساس تفکر میهن پرستی مبتنی بر قانون اساسی که بر مشکلات ناکارآمدی فائق آمده است شکاف موجود در ادبیات این حوزه را بر طرف سازد. در این مقاله چنین استدلال خواهد شد که ویژگی‌های روش تفکر میهن پرستی مبتنی بر قانون اساسی و تاکید آن بر قانونگذاری بهترین روش برای پاسخگویی واقع بینانه به مسائل سیاست گذاری زبان در جوامع چند فرهنگی است. بر خلاف استدلالهای سازنده و اصلی، رویکرد عملگرایانه، زبان را به عنوان یک ماتریس ارتباطی در نظر می‌گیرد که در آن هدف شهروندان  درک متقابل است. رویکرد عملگرایانه موثرتر است زیرا بر خلاف رویکردهای اصولی که تمایل به همگن سازی ترکیب جوامع متنوع دارند، رویکرد عملگرایانه توسط عوامل متعددی محدود می‌شود، از جمله: ارزش‌های فرهنگ و سنت‌های سیاسی جامعه، احتمالات تاریخی مانند نقش اساسی اقلیت‌های ملی و امکانات عملی مانند اندازه، انرژی و تمرکز جمعیت‌های زبانی.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Identity, Language, and Rights: A Critical Theory Perspective

نویسنده [English]

  • Omid Payrow Shabani

Assistant Professor at Philosophy Department, University of Guelph

چکیده [English]

This paper is an attempt to fill the gap in the literature by presenting a language policy formulated according to the idea of constitutional patriotism that overcomes the charge of ineffectiveness. I will argue that the procedural character of constitutional patriotism and its emphasis on the practice of law-making is best suited to allow for a pragmatic answer to the questions of language policy-making in multicultural societies. Unlike the instrumental and intrinsic arguments, the pragmatic approach views language as the matrix of communication where the goal of engaged citizens is mutual understanding. The pragmatic approach is also more effective because unlike the principled approaches, which tend to homogenize the composition of diverse societies, it constrained by (1) values of political culture of the society; (2.a) historical contingencies such as the founding role of national minorities; and (2.b) practical feasibilities such as size, vitality and concentration of linguistic populations.
In recent years the normative status of minority rights as a species of human rights has been widely discussed by political theorists. In this context, the issue of minority language rights is one of the most hotly contested topics in the prevailing debate over the claims of culture. Mainstream political theories approach this topic differently, depending on their view of an appropriate model of political association. Liberal egalitarians emphasize the significance of the liberal ideals of neutrality and autonomy in deciding appropriate language policy, while liberal culturalists focus on the constitutive role of language and culture for the individual’s exercise of rights and liberties that translate into a language policy that ranges from recognitions and accommodation to maintenance and protection of group identity and language.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

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B) Websites

  1. Government of Canada The Official Languages Act, Available at: www.gc.ca.

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