نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی-پژوهشی

نویسنده

استاد حقوق بین‌الملل و دین، دانشگاه اراسموس روتردام هلند

چکیده

حقوق بشرِ جهانی از فقدان یک توافق جمعی پیرامون این سوال رنج می‌برد: چه نوع سازمان دولتی داخلی می‌تواند به معنای واقعی این حقوق اساسی را مد نظر قرار دهد؟ هدف اصلی این مقاله ارائه یک ارزیابی اساسی از حالات مختلف روابط دولت-مذهب و تاثیر آن بر دامنه تبعیت دولت از حقوق بشر است. ما به صورت ویژه بر حق آزادی مذهب یا اعتقاد تمرکز خواهیم کرد. چرا که این حق اساسی بیشتر از هر حق دیگری مورد تهدید قرار می‌گیرد. می‌توان ادعا کرد دولت‌هایی که بر اساس اصل بی طرفی سازمان‌دهی شوند، می‌توانند اساساً اصول حقوق بشر را مد نظر قرار دهند. اما دولت‌هایی که خود را به طور مثبت با یک دیدگاه مذهبی غالب یا به صورت منفی با مذهب می‌شناسند، به نظر توانایی برقراری دموکراسی و همچنین تبعیت حداکثری از حقوق بشر را ندارند. مسئلة حیاتی «چند وجهی» بودن مذاهب نیز به عنوان یک نقش اساسی در بحث اصلاحات مد نظر قرار خواهد گرفت. در نهایت، یک پرونده برای «حق حاکمیت بی طرف» نیز بررسی خواهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Right to Neutral Governance, Religion, the State & the Question of Human Rights Compliance

نویسنده [English]

  • Jeroen Temperman

Professor of International Law and Religion, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands.

چکیده [English]

Universal human rights suffer from a lack of consensus on the question: what kind of internal state organisation can actually take these fundamental rights adequately into account? The main intent of this article is to present a critical assessment of various modes of state–religion affiliation and their effects on the state’s scope for human rights compliance. A special focus will be on the right to freedom of religion or belief since this fundamental right is within this context most profoundly at stake. It will be contended that states which are organised in accordance with the principle of state neutrality can in principle fully comply with human rights norms; while states which identify themselves either positively with a single religious denomination or excessively negatively with religion have to be considered poorly equipped for both democratisation as well as optimal human rights compliance. The crucial issue of ‘multivocality’ of religions will be addressed as a contribution to the reform debate. Ultimately a case will be made for ‘the right to neutral governance’.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • democracy
  • State-Religion Relationship
  • the Right to Neutrality
  • the Right to Freedom of Religion

A) Book & Journals

  1. Baubérot, Jean (2004). “The Place of Religion in Public Life: The Lay Approach”, in: T. Lindholm et al. (eds.), Facilitating Freedom of Religion or Belief: A Deskbook, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
  2. Casanova, José (1996). “Global Catholicism and the Politics of Civil Society”, Sociological Inquiry, No.66.
  3. Casanova, José (2001). “Civil Society and Religion: Retrospective Reflections on Catholicism and Prospective Reflections on Islam”, Social Research, No. 68.
  4. Durham, W. Cole (1996). “Perspectives on Religious Liberty: A Comparative Framework”, in: Vyver, J.D. van der and Witte, J., Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective, Legal Perspectives, The Hague/Boston/London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
  5. Eickelman, Dale F. and Piscatori, James (1996). Muslim Politics, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, Princeton.
  6. Evans, Carolyn and A. Thomas, Christopher (2006). “Church-State Relations in the European Court of Human Rights”, Brigham Young University Law Review, No. 3, 699-726.
  7. Fautre, Willy (2000). “Western Europe: Trends in Religious Liberty”, in: Marshall, P. (ed.), Religious Freedom in the World. A Global Report on Freedom and Persecution, Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers..
  8. Hallencreutz, Carl F. and Westerlund, David (1996). “Anti-secularist Policies of Religion”, in: Westerlund, D., Questioning the Secular State. The Worldwide Resurgence of Religion in Politics, London: Hurst & Company.
  9. Hefner, Robert W. (2000). Civil Islam, Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  10. Huntington, Samuel P. (1991). The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century, Oklahoma City: University of Oklahoma Press.
  11. Kyriazopoulos, Kyriakos N. (2001). “The Prevailing Religion in Greece: its Meaning and Implications”, Journal of Church and State, No. 43. 
  12. Marshall, Paul (2000). “The Nature of Religious Freedom and Religious Persecution”, in: Marshall, P. (ed.), Religious Freedom in the World. A Global Report on Freedom and Persecution, Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers.
  13. Norman, Edward (1992). “Christian Perspectives in a Society of Plural Values”, in: D. Cohn-Sherbok and D. McLellan, Religion in Public Life, New York: St. Martin’s Press.
  14. Stepan, Alfred C. (2000). “Religion, Democracy, and the Twin Tolerations”, Journal of Democracy, No.4.
  15. Tahzib, Bahiyyih G. (1996). Freedom of Religion or Belief, Ensuring Effective International Legal Protection, The Hague/Boston/London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
  16. Temperman, Jeroen (2007). “The Neutral State: Optional or Necessary? A Triangular Analysis of State-Religion Identification, Democratisation & Human Rights Compliance”, Religion & Human Rights - An International Journal, No.3.
  17. Van der Vyver, Johan D. (1996). “Legal Dimensions of Religious Human Rights: Constitutional Texts”, in: J.D. van der Vyver and J. Witte (eds.), Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective. Legal Perspectives, The Hague/Boston/London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.  

B) Documents

  1. Aannual reports by US Department of State and US Commission on International Religious freedom.
  2. Amended Constitution of the Tunisian Republic (1959)
  3. Constitution of Ireland (1937)
  4. Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal (1990)
  5. Constitution of the Republic of Maldives (1998)
  6. Constitution of the Republic of Panama (1972)
  7. Constitution of the Republic of Seychelles (1993)
  8. Constitution of the Republic of the Sudan (1998)
  9. Constitution of the Republic of Yemen (1994)
  10. Constitution of the Republic of Zambia (1991)
  11. Constitution of the United State of America (1787)
  12. Constitution of Ukraine (1996)
  13. Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 213 U.N.T.S. 222, entered into force: 3 September 1953.
  14. DARBY v. SWEDEN, European Court of Human Rights, 11581/85 [1990] ECHR 24 (23 October 1990).
  15. General Comment No. 22: The Right to Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion (Art. 18) (CCPR/C/21/Rev./Add.4), par. 9 (hereinafter also General Comment 22).
  16. Interim National Constitution of the Republic of the Sudan (2005)
  17. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 52, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 999 U.N.T.S.
  18. Permanent Constitution of the State of Qatar (2003)
  19. UN Convention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW; G.A. res. 34/180, 34 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 46) at 193, U.N. Doc. A/34/46
  20. United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, The Religion-State Relationship and the Right to Freedom of Religion or Belief: A Comparative Textual Analysis of the Constitutions of Predominantly Muslim Countries (Washington D.C.:USCIRF, 2005), p. 2.

 

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