محدودیت‌های آزادی دین و بیان در خصوص ارتداد براساس فقه سنتی مسلمانان و حقوق بشر بین‌المللی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی-پژوهشی

نویسنده

مرکز ملی حقوق بشر، دانشگاه ملی ایرلند

چکیده

توسعه یک رویکرد برای ادغام سنت‌های حقوقی مذهبی در ارزش‌های جهانی مدرن، که از طریق استانداردهای بین‌المللیِ حقوق بشر بیان می‌شود، یک اولویت مهم است. این مقاله مطالعه‌ای است بر اساس  فقه سنتی مسلمانان در خصوص ارتداد که هنجارهای حقوق بشر بین‌المللی مربوط به آن را ارائه می‌دهد. این مطالعه به سه دسته متفاوت از ارتداد از جمله تغییر دین، بدعت‌گذاری و سب می‌پردازد. در حالی که در عمل، این سه مفهوم به نظر می‌رسد متفاوت باشند، اما برای حقوق‌دانان مسلمان اصطلاح ارتداد  به طور کلی برای توصیف عمل تغییر دین، بدعت‌گذاری یا سب استفاده می‌شود. این مطالعه همچنین به تمایز بین وجوه عمومی این سنت‌ها و وجوه شخصی‌شان می‌پردازد. قوانین عمومی ارتداد شامل منع و تنبیه سه تخلف تغییر دین، بدعت‌گذاری و سب، همراه با تبعات مدنی این تخلفات مانند مصادره اموال مجرم می‌شوند. در رابطه با وجوه شخصی ارتداد، باید خاطر نشان کرد که چه این تنبیه‌ها بر یک فرد مرتد تحمیل شود یا خیر، خود عمل ارتداد منجر به تبعات قانونی خانوادگی مانند منحل شدن ازدواج فرد مرتد و محروم کردن وی از تکفل فرزندان می‌شود. در دامنه وسیع آزادی دین، عقیده و بیان، این مطالعه تنها به آن وجوهی می‌پردازد که مستقیما به ارتداد مرتبط اند. از این منظر، تمرکز اصلی این مطالعه بر آزادی‌های درون دینی یا آزادی پیروان یک دین در گروه دینی خود است نه مسائل بین دینی که شامل روابط بین دین‌های مختلف می‌شود.
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Limitations on Freedom of Religion and Expression under Muslim Legal Traditions of Apostasy and under International Human Rights Law

نویسنده [English]

  • Kamran Hashemi
Irish Centre for Human Rights, National University of Ireland.
چکیده [English]

Developing an approach to integrate religious legal traditions within modern universal values, as expressed through international human rights norms, is an important priority. The paper provides a study on Muslim Legal Traditions of Apostasy (MLTA) and the international human rights norms relevant to them. The study distinguishes among the three different phenomena of MLTA, which can be listed as conversion, heresy and sabb (blasphemy). While in practice these three concepts appear differently, for Muslim jurists the term irtidad (ridda) is generally used to describe the act of a convert, a blasphemer or a heretic. The study also makes a distinction between the public aspects of these traditions and their personal aspects. Public rules of MLTA include prohibition and punishment of the three different alleged offences, conversion, blasphemy and heresy, along with the civil consequences of these offences, such as confiscation of the property of the offender. With regard to personal aspects of MLTA, it should be noted that, whether the punishment is imposed on an apostate or not, the act of apostasy automatically leads to some family law consequences, such as dissolving the marriage of the apostate, and depriving him/her of the custody of his/her children.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Apostasy
  • Inside Religious Freedom
  • Freedom of Speech
  • Islam
  • Traditional Fiqh
A) Books & Journals
1. Holly Quran
2. Arzt, D. E. (1966). “Religious Human Rights in the Middle East and North Africa”,
Emory International law Review, Vol.10, No.1.
3. Arzt, D. E. (2002). “The Role of Compulsion in Islamic Conversion: Jihad, ‘Dhimmi
and Ridda”, Buffalo Human Rights Law Review, Vol. 8, No. 15, p.32.
4. Bielefeldt, H. (1995). “Muslim Voice in the Human Rights Debate”, Human Rights
Quarterly, Vol.17, No.4.
5. Cox, N. (2000). Blasphemy and the Law in Ireland, Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press.
6. D'Arcy, Eric (1961). “Conscience and its Rights to Freedom”, Quoted In: Stahnke, T.
(1999). “Proselytism and the Freedom to Change Religion in International Human
Rights Law”, Brigham Young University Law Review, No.251, p.282.
7. Eltayeb, M.S.M. (2003). “A Human Rights Framework for Defining and
Understanding Intra-Religious Persecutions in Muslim Countries”, in: Ghanea, N.
(ed.) The Challenge of Religious Discrimination at the Dawn of the New Millennium,
Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
8. Evans, C. (1999). “Religious Freedom in European Human Rights Law, The Search
for a Guiding Conception”, in: Janis, M.W., Religion and International Law,
Netherlands: Kluwer Law International.
9. Glenn, H. P. (2000). Legal Traditions of the World, Sustainable Diversity in Law,
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
10. Jannaati, M. E. (1995). The stages of Fiqh and the Manner of its Discussion, Tehran
:Kayhan Publisher. [In Persian]
11. Kadivar, M. (2001). “Freedom of Thought and Religion in Islam”, Collected Papers of
the International Conference on Human Rights and Dialogue of Civilization , Qom:
Mofid University Press
12. Krishnaswami, A. (1960). Study of Discrimination in the matter of Religious Rights and
Practices, New York: United Nations publication, Sales No.60.XIV.2.
13. Leviticus, 24:16.
14. Luke 12:10.
15. Makiya, K. (1993). “Cruelty and Silence: War, Tyranny, Uprising and the Arab
World’ 90”, Quoted in: Arzt, D. E. (2002). “The Role of Compulsion in Islamic
Conversion: Jihad, ‘Dhimmi and Ridda”, Buffalo Human Rights Law Review, Vol. 8,
No. 15, p.29.
16. Mirmohammadsadeghi, H. (1383). Offences against Security of the State and Public
Tranquillity, fourth edition, Tehran: Mizaan publisher. [In Persian]
17. Otto-Preminger, 295 Eur. Ct. H.R. (Ser. A) at 8-9.
18. Oyediran, J. (1992). “Article 13(5) of the American Convention on Human Rights”,
in: Coliver, S. (ed.) Striking a Balance : Hate Speech , Freedom of Expression and Nondiscrimination
, Article 19, London: Human Rights Centre, University of Essex .
19. Rahman, S. A. (1972). Punishment of apostasy in Islam, Lahore: Institute of Islamic
Culture.
20. Riffat, H. (1982). “On Human Rights and the Koranic Perspective”, in: Swidler, A.
(ed.), Human Rights in Religious Traditions, New York: The Pilgrim Press.
70 The Journal of Human Rights Issue 24 pp. 39-72
21. Rudolph, P. & De Vries, G. J. J. (1976). “Apostasy in Islam”, in: Die Welt des Islams,
XVII, p.7.
22. Sabri, N. (2002). A Selection of the Judgments of Criminal Courts, Second Edition,
Tehran: Ferdowsi Press. [In Persian]
23. Saeed, A. & Saeed, H. (2004). Freedom of Religion, Apostasy, and Islam, Aldershot,
Hants, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgatee.
24. Schacht, J. (1964). An Introduction to Islamic Law, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
25. Talbi, M. (1986). “Religious Liberty: A Muslim Perspective”, in: Swidler, L. (ed.),
Religious Liberty and Human Rights, No.16, pp.182-183.
26. Torbatinejad, H. (2003). Islam and Violence, Qom: Haram Publication. [In Persian]
B) Documents
27. Administration of Islamic Religion Affairs (Trengganu) Enactment 1986.
28. Case of Choudhury v. U. Kappliction No.17439/1990 reprinted in 12 Hum. R. L. J.
172-73 (1991).
29. Case of Gay News Ltd. v. United Kingdom, 5 Eur. H.R. Rep. 123, P11 (1983).
30. Case of Kokkinakis v .Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H.R. (ser.A) (1993).
31. Case of R. v. Chief Metropolitan Stipendairy Magistrate, ex parte Choudhury, 1 All
E.R. 306 (Q.B. 1991).
32. Case of R. v. Lemon, R. v. Gay News Ltd. Central Criminal Court, 11 July 1977.
33. Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by
Human Rights Treaty Bodies, U.N. Doc. HRIGEN1Rev.1 at 35 (1994).
34. Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by
Human Rights Treaty Bodies, U.N. Doc. HRIGEN1Rev.1 at 35 (1994).
35. Constitution of Greece, adopted on: 11 June 1975.
36. Criminal Code of Austria
37. Criminal Code of Germany
38. Criminal Code of Spain
39. Criminal Code of The Netherlands
40. General Comment No. 10: Freedom of expression (Art. 19): 29/06/83, ¶1.
41. Great Britain, Law Commission, Offences against Religion and Public worship,
London: H.M.S.O., pp.2-3.
42. Human Rights Committee, General Comment 22, Article 18 (Forty-eighth
session, 1993).
43. Penal Code of Finland
44. Penal Code of Austrian
45. Report submitted pursuant to Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/40,
Addendum, Visit to Algeria (16-26 September 2002), E/CN.4/2003/66/Add.1, (9
January 2003).
46. Second State party report of Algeria on Implementation of Covenant on Civil and
Political Rights: Second periodic reports of States parties due in 1995: Algeria. 18/05/98.
CCPR.C.101.Add.1,
47. Summary record of the 1684th meeting of Human Rights Committeeg: Algeria.
CCPR/C/SR.1684, ¶ 5. (4 December 1998).
48. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination , G.A. res.
2106 (XX), Annex, 20 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 14) at 47, U.N. Doc. A/6014 (1966),
660 U.N.T.S. 195.
Limitations on Freedom of Religion…/Hashemi 71
49. The European Convention of Human Rights supra note 56.
50. The African [Banjul] Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, adopted June 27, 1981,
OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/67/3 rev. 5, 21 I.L.M. 58 (1982.
51. The American Convention on Human Rights, O.A.S. Treaty Series No. 36, 1144
U.N.T.S. 123.
52. The American Convention on Human Rights, supra note 57.
53. The Declaration on Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance Based on Religion or
Belief, G.A. res. 36/55, 36 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 51) at 171, U.N. Doc. A/36/684
(1981).
54. The European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental
Freedoms, 213 U.N.T.S. 222, entered into force Sept. 3, 1953, amended by Protocols
Nos 3, 5, 8, and 11.
55. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), 21
U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 52, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 999 U.N.T.S. 171.
56. Trial for Neshat Daily: <http://www.sharghnewspaper.com/831220/html/
online.htm#s198606>.
57. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948).
58. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, G.A. res. 217A (III), U.N. Doc A/810 at 71
(1948).
59. Yemen Law on the Press and Publications, Law No 25, signed in December 1990.
C) Websites
60. <http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Blasphemy>.
61. Al-Ahram Al-Arabi (Egypt), July 3, 2004, translation in English in Aluma Dankowitz,
‘Accusing Muslim Intellectuals of Apostasy’, in Inquiry and Analysis Series - No. 208
February 18, 2005 available at:
<http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=archives&Area=ia&ID=IA20805#_edn3>
62. Application of the Apostasy Law in the World Today (2003). Barnabas Fund,
Available at: http://www.barnabasfund.org/Apostasy/_edn2#_edn2.
63. Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani in English, available at his website :
<http://www.lankarani.org>
64. Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani, pages 438, Questions 1152-1154 at his website in Persian
at : <http://www.lankarani.com/Persian/ahkam/jm2/j20.html#432>.
65. Ayatollah Hoseinali Montazeri, questions 885- 891 and 2506- 2509 in his website in
Persian at : <http://www.amontazeri.com>.For his views also see a report at BBC
website in Persian : <http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/story/2005/02/050202_mjmontzari-
renegade.shtml>.
66. Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi, his website in Persian at:
<http://www.makaremshirazi.org/persian/modules.php?name=es&p=2&id=119>.
His views about some heretic group: <http://www.makaremshirazi.org/persian/
modules.php?name=es&p=2&id=122
67. Ayatollah Musavi Ardabili, his website in Persian at :
<http://www.ardebili.org/Per/FAQ/NewFAQ/>.
68. Ayatollah Sistani, his website in Persian at: <http://www.sistani.org/html/far/main/
index-istia.php?page=4&lang=far&part=4>.
69. Baghi, E. (2006). “Where is the Crisis? ”, [In Persian], Available at :
<http://www.emrouz.info/archives/2006/02/00247_24.php>
72 The Journal of Human Rights Issue 24 pp. 39-72
70. http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Heresy
71. J G Jansen, Johannes (2005). “Muslim Victims of Jihad”, Netherlands: Utrecht
University, Available at: <http://www.iheu.org/node/1545>
72. Rizvi, S. M. “Apostasy (Irtidad) in Islam”, Available at <http://www.alislam.
org/short/apostacy.htm
73. Seyfzaadeh, S.M. “Rereading the case of Samiei-nez

CAPTCHA Image