نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی-پژوهشی

نویسنده

وکیل و مشاور خصوصی

چکیده

این مقاله به بررسی این منازعات در زمینه تعامل‌های دولت‌های اسلامی با رژیم‌های حقوق بشری چند جانبه پرداخته و بحث خود را با منشور سازمان ملل متحد، اعلامیة جهانی حقوق بشر، میثاقین (میثاق بین‌المللی حقوق مدنی و سیاسی و میثاق بین‌المللی حقوق اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی) و رویه‌های دیگر رژیم‌های بین‌الملی و منطقه‌ای حقوق بشری آغاز می‌کند. این مطالعه همچنین به تحلیل تعاملات بین حقوق بشر جهانشمول و حقوق اسلامی از طریق «حق شرط‌های» موجود در نظام حقوق بشر، می‌پردازد. به ویژه، این مطالعه بر چگونگی ایجاد عبارات موسوم به «حق شرط‌های اسلامی» توسط دولت‌های اسلامی تمرکز کرده و به دنیال یافتن میزان اختلافات این شروط با حقوق بشر جهانشمول در مخالفت‌های بیان شده در رابطه با این شروط توسط دولت‌های مختلف عضو در این معاهدات خواهد بود. میزان اجرای حقوق بشر در این «حق شرط‌های اسلامی» در سیستم‌های قانونی این کشورهای اسلامی نیز ارزیابی می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

ISLAMIC RESERVATIONS’ TO HUMAN RIGHTS TREATIES AND UNIVERSALITY OF HUMAN RIGHTS WITHIN THE CULTURAL RELATIVIST PARADIGM

نویسنده [English]

  • AHMAD ALI SAWED

Attorney at Law & Private Advisor.

چکیده [English]

The legitimacy debate between ‘universal’ human rights and its apparent conflict with the Islamic value system (broadly characterized as the ‘relativist’ challenge to ‘universal’ human rights) is still far from settled. My paper will reflect on this debate in terms of the current international treaty law.
The paper will consider this conflict in the light of the interaction of Islamic states with multilateral human rights regimes, starting from United Nations Charter, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the two covenants (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights) and the stream of other international and regional human rights regimes. It will analyze through the ‘reservations’ clause of human rights regimes, the interaction between ‘universal’ human rights and Islamic law.
In particular, it will focus on how Islamic states have put forward what has come to be known as the “Islamic reservations”, and it will attempt to outline to what extent these reservations are contradictory to universal human rights, as noted in the objections to these reservations by various states parties to the treaties. An assessment will also be made of the extent to which the human rights to which the ‘Islamic reservations’ have been made, may actually be incorporated into the legal systems of the reserving Islamic countries.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Human Rights Treaties
  • Universality
  • Reservation
  • Islam
  • Relativism

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