نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران. ایران

2 دانشجوی دکترا، دانشکده حقوق دانشگاه مونترال. کانادا

چکیده

امروزه و در دنیای اقتصادهای به‌ هم‌ پیوسته جهانی و با توجه به گسترش اقتصادهای تک محصولی که هر یک به صورت مستقیم و غیرمستقیم به دیگر کشورها وابسته‌اند و با توجه به جریان در حال رشد تجارت و صادرات جهانی غذا و دارو، اعمال تحریم‌های یکجانبه اقتصادی به ابزاری نیرومند جهت اعمال سیاست‌ها و خواسته‌های کشورهای قدرتمند تبدیل شده است. در حالیکه تحریم‌های اقتصادی ابزار نیرومندی در دست کشورهای اعمال‌کننده‌ی آنها می‌باشند، تاثیرات مخرب آنها بر مردم کشور موضوع این تحریم ها بسیار گسترده و غیرقابل انکار است. این تاثیرات مخرب بر حقوق مردم کشور تحریم شده، با اجرای فراسرزمینی تحریم‌های اقتصادی و گستردگی دامنه آنها با اجرای گروهی از کشورهای قدرتمند و تبعیت کشورهای دنباله‌رو در صحنه بین‌المللی نمایان‌تر می‌شود.
این مقاله به بررسی نظام یکجانبه تحریم‌ها و اثر قوانین محدود‌کننده در این زمینه پرداخته و ناکافی بودن نگرش فعلی و اسناد بین المللی حقوق بشری در خصوص اثر تحریم های اقتصادی بر دسترسی به غذای مناسب و داروهای حیاتی را مورد مطالعه قرار می دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Legal Analysis of the Compliance of Economic Countermeasures with Human Rights: Economic Sanctions and Access to Food and Medicine

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Mohamad Hassan Razavi 1
  • Fateme Zeynodini 2

1 Assistant Prof., Department of Law, Tehran University. Iran

2 PhD Candidate- University of Montreal, Faculty of Law. Canada

چکیده [English]

The increasing global interdependencies associated with the flow of goods and services and the corresponding direct/indirect reliance of individual economies on each other has made unilateral economic countermeasures an attractive and powerful policy-imposing instrument. It is, at the same time, a potentially devastating solution for the populations of the targeted country. The phenomenon is made worse by the increase in the scope of economic sanctions together with their broad extraterritorial implementation. This raises questions about their intersection with human rights and the limits to which embargos should extend in order to punish the wrongful deeds of a target country.

The protection of human rights as a customary norm of international law is beginning to create a major debate on the effects of implementing economic countermeasures. The negative consequences of such countermeasures should be seen as a matter of concern for the international community as reflected in Article 50 (b) of the “Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts” which insists on the protection of fundamental human rights as an obligation for the states when taking countermeasures. The traditional inter-state focus of counter-measures as a way of responding to illicit acts should increasingly take into account their impact on actual populations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Economic Sanctions
  • human rights
  • Right to Access to Food and Medicine
  • International Responsibility of States
  • Economic Integration of States

الف- کتب و مقالات

الف-1: فارسی

  1. شهبازی، آرامش (1390)،«اعتبار عهدنامه مودت (1955) و قابلیت استناد به آن در روابط ایران و ایالت متحدۀ آمریکا»، مجلۀ حقوقی بین المللی، سال 13، شماره 11، ص71.

الف-2: لاتین

  1. Elliott, Kimberly Ann et al. (2008). The Concise Encyclopedia of Economic SanctionsWashington, D.C: Peterson Institute for International Economics.
  2. Garfield, Richard, et al. (1995 winter). The Health Impact of Economic Sanctions, New York: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, No. 72.
  3. Gordon, Joy (1999). “Economic Sanctions, Just War Doctrine, and the Fearful Spectacle of the Civilian Dead”, Cross Currents, Vol. 49, No. 30, pp. 387-400.
  4. Hahn, Michael (1991). “Vital Interests and the Law of GATT: An Analysis of GATT.’s Security Exception”, Michigan Journal of International Law, Vol. 12, Issue. 3, pp. 558-620.
  5. Kaempfer, William H. & Lowenberg, Anton D (1999). “Unilateral Versus Multilateral International Sanctions: A Public Choice Perspective”, the International Studies Association, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 37-58.
  6. Kaempfer, William H. & Lowenberg, Anton D (2007). “The Political Economy of Economic Sanctions”, Chapter 27 in: Handbook of Defense Economics, Vol. 2, pp. 867-911 from Elsevier.
  7. Kozhanov, Nikolay A (2011). “US Economic Sanctions against Iran: Undermined by External Factors”, Middle East Policy, Vol. 18, No. 3, Pages 144-160.
  8. Lowendfeld, Andreas F (2003). International Economic Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  9. Reisman, W. Michael & Stevick, Douglas L. (1998). “The Applicability of International Law Standards to United Nations Economic Sanctions Programmes”, European Journal of International Law, No. 9, pp. 86-141.
  10. Smith, M. Shane (2004). Sanctions: Diplomatic Tool, or Warfare by Other Means, Beyond Intractability, Boulder: Conflict Resolution Consortium, Colorado: University of Colorado.
  11. Walde, Thomas W (2001). “Managing the Risk of Sanctions in the Global Oil & (and) Gas Industry: Corporate Response under Political, Legal and Commercial Pressures”, Texas International Law Journal, No. 36.
  12. Wallensteen, Peter (2000). “A Century of Economic Sanctions: A Field Revisited”, Uppsala Peace Research Papers, No. 1.
  13. Zwi A, Macree J (1993). “Food as an instrument of war in contemporary African famines: a review of the evidence”, Disasters, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 299-321.

ب- اسناد

  1. Bank Mellat V. Her Majesty’s Treasury, ((No 2): Sc 19 Jun 2013).
  2. CESCR, G.C. 14, E/C.12/2000/4, para.3
  3. Council Regulation (EU) No 961/2010, 25 October 2010, on restrictive measures against Iran and repealing Regulation (EC) No 423/2007
  4. Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (A/56/10).
  5. ICESCR, Article 1, para.2; ICCPR, Article 1, para.2
  6. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)
  7. Maastricht Principles on Extraterritorial Obligation on Social and Economic Rights
  8. Means of reparation: restitution, compensation and satisfaction; Articles on State Responsibility (2001).
  9. Nicaragua v. United States of America, (International Court of Justice, 27 June 1986).
  10. Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the protection of victims of international armed conflicts (Protocol I).
  11. Sixty-Eighth General Assembly Plenary, 38th & 39th Meetings, GA/11445/ 29 Oct. 2013
  12. Voluntary Guideline.
  13. WHO Model List of Essential Drugs

 

 

پ- وبسایت­ها

  1. Burci, Glan Luca (1998). Legal Aspects of UN Economic Sanctions, http://www.lcil.cam.ac.uk/sites/default/files/lcil/documents/papers/burci.pdf.
  2. The Eren Law Firm, Economic and Financial Sanctions Practice, http://www.erenlaw.com/pdfs/pb_economic_sanctions-defined.pdf (2005-2006).

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