نقش زنان در ساختن کشور

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی-پژوهشی

نویسنده

مدرس حقوق در دانشگاه وایکیتو نیوزیلند

چکیده

«من برای مدت طولانی در تبعید بودم و از انعطاف پذیری، هوش، قدرت و توانایی زنان افغان که از افغانستان و اطراف دنیا آمده بودند، شگفت زده شده­ام. من قول می­دهم که این زنان بدون هیچ مشکلی کشور را بازسازی کنند.» (Bernard et al, 2008: 150) در این مقاله من بررسی نقش زنان در سناریوهای پس از جنگ به خصوص در موارد حفظ صلح و ساختن کشور را مطرح می­کنم. می­خواهم از یک بیانیه کلی دربارة نقش مهم و برابر زنان در جامعه که هم در اسناد بین­المللی حقوق بشر، همچون اعلامیه جهانی حقوق بشر و میثاق بین­المللی حقوق مدنی و سیاسی به آن اشاره شده است، شروع کنم. همچنین این اصل توسط ادیان بزرگ از جمله اسلام پذیرفته شده است.
تعداد کمی از سیاستگذاران که مسئول ساختن کشور با هدف نهایی ایجاد جوامع عادلانه دموکراتیک و مسالمت آمیز که حقوق بشر زنان را احترام می­گذارد، با آن مخالفت می­کنند. با این حال بسیاری از آن­ها ابراز نگرانی می­کنند که دستیابی به این هدفِ «بسیار زود» ممکن است قایق را بشکند و در برخورد با یک قایق بسیار لرزان ممکن است تبدیل به هرج و مرج شود و شما نمی­توانید ریسک کنید.[1] این مقاله به دنبال تعیین نقش زنان در سناریو­های پس از جنگ بدون «سرنگونی قایق» است. این سوال مطرح می­شود که تا چه زمانی دخالت زنان باید به تعویق بیافتد تا «وضعیت به ثبات برسد». برخی معتقدند که با توجه به مزایای مختلف دخالت زنان، ترجیحا زودتر به جای دیرتر، دخالت آنان نباید به تعویق بیافتد.[2] در این مقاله به طور ویژه در مورد دخالت زنان در افغانستان تاکید می­شود. با این حال افغانستان نمونه­هایی از خطر و مشکل ترویج مشارکت زنان در ساختن کشور را فراهم می­کند. به عنوان مثال در مورخ 29/9/2008 گزارش شد که یک مامور پلیس افغانی، ملالی کاکار، مورد اصابت گلوله قرار گرفته و کشته شده است و طالبان مسئولیت مرگ وی را بر عهده گرفته است.[3] این نخستین نمونه از ترور مستقیم یک زن مامور پلیس پس از 2001 نبود. سؤالی که در این حادثه مطرح می­شود این است که آیا تاکید بر ترویج مشارکت زنان در نیروی پلیس پیش از موعد است یا خیر؟ آیا این یک نمونه از «شکستن قایق است» بخشی از ساختن کشور است؟ طرح کلی پیشنهادی این مقاله به شرح زیر است: مقدمه و زمینه­های اساسی: برابری و نقش زنان در جامعه: اصول کلی قانونی، اصول اجتماعی و مذهبی؛ زنان و کشور سازی: تعاریف، اصول کلی، اسناد بین­المللی و آمار؛ افغانستان: فرآیندها و مشکلات؛ زمینه­های تاریخی و مسائل مدرن؛ نتیجه گیری: توصیه­ها به ویژه برای افغانستان و برای زنان در ساختن کشور به معنای کلی­تر.



[1] . See: Bernard et al, 2008: 3.


[2]. See: Shorish-Shamley, in: Bernard et al, 2008: 4-5.


[3]. See: Aljazeera.net, 2008, Available online at: http://english.aljazeera.net/news/ asia/2008/09/20089287317569974.html.

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Women in Nation-Building: Rocking the Boat at the Risk of Making it Capsize?

نویسنده [English]

  • Myra Williamson
Lecturer in Law at the University of Waikato, New Zealand
چکیده [English]

I have been in exile for a long time, and I was amazed at the resilience, intelligence, strength and ability of the Afghan women that I met who came from inside the country and around the world. These women, I promise, can rebuild the country with no problem. (Bernard et al, 2008: 150) In this paper I propose to examine the role played by women in post-conflict scenarios, especially with regards to peace-keeping and nation building. I would like to begin with a general statement about the important and equal role of women in society, a principle which is enshrined in both international human rights documents such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. It is also a principle that is accepted by the major religions, including Islam. The proposed title of the paper takes its inspiration from the following quote:
Few policymakers responsible for nation-building would argue against the ultimate goal of establishing equitable, democratic and egalitarian societies in which the human rights of  women are respected. Many however, express the fear that pursuing that goal “too soon” may rock the boat, and that in dealing with a boat so shaky that it may capsize anyway, you just can’t take the risk. 
This paper seeks to determine what role women should play in post-conflict scenarios, without “capsizing the boat”. It questions to what degree women’s involvement must be postponed in order to first “stabilize the situation”. Some would argue that given the various advantages in women’s involvement sooner rather than later, that their involvement ought not to be postponed. The paper will particularly draw upon the involvement of women in Afghanistan. However, Afghanistan itself provides examples of the danger and difficulty of promoting women’s involvement in nation-building. For example, as recently as Sunday 29th September 2008 it was reported that an iconic Afghan policewoman, Malalai Kakar, had been shot and killed, and that the Taliban had claimed responsibility for her death. This was not the first instance of a woman in Afghanistan’s post-2001 police force being directly targeted for assassination. The question these incidents raise is whether an emphasis on promoting the participation of women in the Afghani police-force is premature: is this an example of “rocking the boat” or is this all part and parcel of nation-building? The proposed broad outline for the paper is as follows: Introduction and basic premises: The equality of women and the role of women in society: general legal, social and religious principles; Women and nation-building: definitions, general principles, international documents and statistics; Afghanistan: processes and problems – historical context and modern issues; Conclusion: recommendations for Afghanistan in particular and for women in nation-building in a more general sense.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Nation Building
  • human rights
  • Afghan Women
  • Women’s Role
A) Books & Articles:

  1. Bernard, C., Jones, S., Oliker, O., Thurston, C. Q., Stearns, B. and Cordell, K (2008). Women and Nation-Building, California: Rand Corporation.
  2. Dobbins, J., Jones, S., Crane, K., and De Grasse, B (2007). The Beginner’s Guide to Nation-Building, California: Rand Corporation.
  3. Engineer, A. (2004). The Rights of Women in Islam, 2nd ed, New Delhi: New Dawn Press.
  4. Kamali, M (2008). “References to Islam and Women in the Afghan Constitution”, Arab Law Quarterly, No. 22, pp. 270-299.
  5. Richmond, Oliver & Henry Carey (eds.) (2005). Subcontracting Peace: The Challenges of NGO Peacebuilding, Aldershot: Ashgate.
  6. Waines, D (1995). An Introduction to Islam, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  7. Welchman, L. (2007). Women and Muslim Family Laws in Arab States – A Comparative Overview of Textual Development and Advocacy, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  8. Williamson, M (2009). Terrorism, War and International Law: the legality of the use of force against Afghanistan in 2001, Aldershot: Ashgate.
B) Documents:

  1. UNICEF and Innocenti Research Center (2000). “Domestic Violence against Women and Girls” Innocenti Digest, No. 6, Florence, Italy.
  2. UN Doc A/58/323
  3. UN Doc A59/2005,
  4. UN Doc A/59/2005/Add.2
  5. UN Doc S/Res/1325 (2000), adopted by the Security Council at its 4213th meeting, on 31 October 2000
  6. UN Docs S/PRST/2001/31
  7. UN Docs S/PRST/2002/32
  8. UN Docs S/PRST/2004/40
  9. UN Docs S/PRST/2005/52
  10. UN Docs S/PRST/2006/42
  11. UN Doc S/PRST 2004/40
  12. UN Doc S/Res/1325 (2000).
  13. UN Development Programme (2007). Afghanistan Human Development Report 2007 - Bridging Modernity and Tradition: Rule of Law and the Search for Justice, Pakistan
  14. UNIFEM (2006). Uncounted and Discounted: A Secondary Data Research Project on Violence against Women in Afghanistan, Afghanistan.
  15. UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (1993).
  16. UN Economic and Social Council, “The Situation of Women and Girls in Afghanistan”, UN Doc E/CN.6/2006/5.
  17. Afghan Constitution,
  18. The Convention for the Elimination of Discrimination against Women 1981.
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  21. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
  22. UN Doc S/Res/1325 (2000)
  23. UN Docs S/PRST/2007/5
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