Document Type : Research Article

Author

Political Philosophy Researcher

Abstract

Global society is characterized by its philosophical, ethical and religious disagreements. What are the implications of the doctrinal conflict for the understanding of a conception of human rights? In this paper, I briefly explain John Rawls’ conception of human rights, which is distinct from and narrower than his conception of justice (i.e., justice as fairness). Rawls conceives human rights as minimal, but necessary requirements of justice – although not sufficient from a liberal point of view –that can be satisfied by various political systems. Rawls argues that human rights are common to all peoples, since they are compatible with all reasonable political morality, including those of both “liberal” and “decent hierarchical” peoples. The central idea of Rawls’ account is that, a conception of human rights suitable for a pluralistic world must be independent from controversial philosophical, ethical or religious doctrines. Such a conception must serve as the object of an overlapping consensus among different ethical and religious traditions; each may offer the different lines of argument.

Keywords

- Angle, Stephan (2005). “Decent Democratic Centralism”, Political Theory, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 518-46.
- An-Na’im, Abdullahi A. (2001). Human Rights, Religion and the Contingency of Universalist Projects, Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
- Beitz, Charles (1999). Political Theory and International Relations, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
- Beitz, Charles (2001). Political Theory and International Relations, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
- Caney, Simon (2001). “Cosmopolitan justice and equalizing opportunities”, Metaphilosophy, Vol. 32, no. 1/2, pp.113-34.
- Cohen, J. and Sable, C. (2005). “Extra Rempublicam Nulla Justitia?”, Philosophy & Public Affairs, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 147-175.
- Cohen, Joshua (2006). “Is There a Human Right to Democracy?”, in: Sypnowich, C. ed., The Egalitarian Conscience: Essays in Honor of G.A. Cohen, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Dahl, Robert (2000). On Democracy, Connecticut: Yale University Press.
- El Fadl, Khaled Abou (2003). “The Human Rights Commitment in Modern Islam”, in: J. Runzo, N. Martin, and A. Sharma, eds., Human Rights and Responsibilities in the World Religion, Oxford: Oneworld.
- El Fadl, Khaled Abou (2004).  Islam and Challenge of Democracy, New Jersey: Princeton.
- Fanaie, Aboulghasem (2015). Ethics of theology: A research on the moral andepistemological foundations of jurisprudence, Tehran: Negah Moaser. [In Persian]
- Freeman, Michael (2002). Human Rights: An Interdisciplinary Approach,Cambridge: Polity Press, pp. 26-32. 
- Freeman, Samuel (2007). Rawls, Landon: Routledge.
- Glendon, Mary Ann (2002).  A World Made New: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, New York: Random House.
- Ignatieff, Michael (2003).  Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
- Maritain, Jacques (1948). “Introduction”, in: Human Rights: Comments and Interpretations. A symposium, edited by UNESCO, Paris: UNESCO.
- Miller, David (2002). “Debate Caney’s ‘International Distributive Justice’: a Response,” Political Studies, Vol. 50, No. 6.
- Moellendorf, Darrell (2002). Cosmopolitan Justice, Colorado: Westview Press.
- Pogge, Thomas (2002). Realizing Rawls, New York: Cornell University press.
- Pogge, Thomas (2002). World Poverty and Human Rights, Cambridge: Polity Press.
- Rawls, John (1999). The Law of Peoples, New Jersey: Harvard University Press.
- Rawls, John (2001). Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, New Jersey: Harvard University Press.
- Risse, Mathias (2008). “Common Ownership of the Earth as a Non-Parochial Standpoint: A Contingent Derivation of Human Rights”, European Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 1, No, 2, pp. 1-28.
- Rousseau, Jean Jacques (1987). On the Social Contract, in the Basic Political Writings, Trans. by D. A. Cress, Indianapolis: Hackett.
- Simmons, John (2001). Justification and legitimacy: Essays on Rights andObligations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Walzer, Michael (1977). Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Arguments with Historical Illustrations, New York: Basic Books.
- Wenar, Leif (2006). “Why Rawls is Not a Cosmopolitan Egalitarian”, in: Martin and Reidy, eds., Rawls’s Law of Peoples: A Realistic Utopia, Malden, MA: Blackwell.
CAPTCHA Image