نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استاد حقوق دانشکده حقوق پیتر آلارد، دانشگاه بریتیش کلمبیا، ونکوور، ;کانادا.

چکیده

سازگاری منتخب/ انتخابی روند تطبیق قوانین بین‌المللی حقوقی با شرایط محلی را توصیف می‌کند. زمینه‌های نهادی و فرهنگی برای سازگاری انتخابی شامل روندی هستند که طی آن رویه‌های نهادی و ساختار‌های سازمانی غیر محلی با هنجارهای محلی مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرند. این روند را می‌توان با استناد به اجرای محلی رژیم‌های بین‌المللی حقوق بشر نشان داد. سازگاری انتخابی با روش‌هایی امکان پذیر می‌شود که دولت‌ها، نخبگان و دیگر جوامع تفسیری ترجیحات هنجاری خود را در جریان تفسیر و به کارگیری قوانین عملی بیان کنند. سازگاری انتخابی به عوامل مختلفی بستگی دارد، از جمله ادراک، مکمل بودن و مشروعیت. ادراک بر فهم هنجارها و رویه‌های خارجی و محلی تأثیر می‌گذارد. در واقع یک اصل فیزیک هسته‌ای، شرایطی را که به وسیله آن می‌توان پدیده‌های ظاهرا متناقض را به روش‌هایی ترکیب کرد که خصوصیات اساسی هر مؤلفه حفظ شود و در عین حال این امکان را برای آن‌ها فراهم سازد که با هم به شکلی تقویت‌کننده و مؤثر همکاری کنند را به صورت کامل توصیف می‌کند. مشروعیت به میزان حمایت اعضای جامعه محلی از اهداف و پیامدهای سازگاری انتخابی بستگی دارد. از آنجایی که جوامع تفسیری محلی تلاش می‌‌کنند تا قوانین بین‌المللی را با هنجارهای محلی هماهنگ کنند، این سه عامل تأثیر به‌سزایی در پیروی نهادهای محلی از رژیم‌های بین‌المللی حقوق بشر دارند. در این مقاله الگوی سازگاری انتخابی بر عملکرد تعهدات بین‌المللی حقوق بشر مانند حق بر توسعه اعمال خواهد شد و نشان می‌دهد که چگونه سازگاری انتخابی بر پویایی حق بر توسعه تأثیر می‌گذارد و همچنین چگونه پیروی از قوانین بین‌المللی حقوق بشر می‌تواند متناسب با فرهنگ حقوقی و سیاسی محلی باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Human Rights Protection: The Role of Institutional Capacity and Selective Adaptation

نویسنده [English]

  • Pitman Potter

Professor of Law, Peter Allard School of Law, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

چکیده [English]

Selective adaptation describes the process by which international legal rules are contextualized to local conditions. The institutional and cultural contexts for selective adaptation involve a process by which non-local institutional practices and organizational forms are mediated by local norms. This process can be illustrated by reference to the local implementation of international human rights regimes.
Selective adaptation is made possible by ways in which governments, elites, and other interpretive communities express their own normative preferences in the course of interpretation and application of practice rules. Selective adaptation depends on a number of factors, including perception, complementarity, and legitimacy. Perception influences understanding about foreign and local norms and practices. Originally a principle of nuclear physics, complementarity describes a circumstance by which apparently contradictory phenomena can be combined in ways that preserve essential characteristics of each component and yet allow for them to operate together in a mutually reinforcing and effective manner. Legitimacy concerns the extent to which members of local communities support the purposes and consequences of selective adaptation. These three factors exercise a powerful influence on local compliance with international human rights regimes, as local interpretive communities endeavor to harmonize international rules with local norms.
This paper will apply selective adaptation paradigm to performance of international human rights obligations such as the right to development. The paper draws on documentary and field research in China and Asia during 2002-2004. Supported by a Major Collaborative Research Initiatives project funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, the paper will suggest how selective adaptation affects the dynamics of the right to development, and how compliance with international human rights rules remains contextualized to local legal and political culture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • human rights
  • Selective adaptation
  • institutional
  • Legitimacy

A) Books & Articles

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B) Documents:

- Final Declaration of the Regional Meeting for Asia of the World Conference on Human Rights, (Bangkok Declaration) (April 2, 1993).

- The United Nations General Assembly's Declaration on the Right to Development Res 41/128 (1986).

- UNESCO Commission on Human Rights' Report on the Global Consultation on the Right to Development as a Human Right E/CN.4/1990/9/Rev.1 (1990).

- UNESCO Secretary General's Position Paper delivered to the 1995 Copenhagen Summit.

- UNESCO Secretary General's Report on the Right to Development (E/CN.4/1334) (1979).

- United Nations (1973). Multinational Corporations in World Development, New York: United Nations.

- United Nations General Assembly Declaration on the Right to Development (Res 41/128 1986).

- United Nations World Conference on Human Rights: Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, (1993).

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