نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

همکار تحقیق و پژوهش در زمینه تجارت و حقوق بشر انستیتوی حقوق بین‌الملل و تطبیقی انگلیس، لندن، انگلستان.

چکیده

مطالعه من درمورد حق شرط‌ به کنوانسیون رفع هرگونه تبعیض علیه زنان (CEDAW) و سازگاری آن‌ها با رژیم کنوانسیون وین در مورد حقوق معاهدات است. این مقاله بر حق شرط‌های محتوایی که بر گرفته از احکام اسلامی هستند و توسط مسلمانان بر کنواسیون رفع هرگونه تبعیض علیه زنان اعمال شده است متمرکز است. برخی از حق شرط‌ها به دلیل اینکه با روح و هدف کنواسیون در تضاد هستند قابل اجرا نیستند. من بر پارادوکس بین افزایش حداکثری اعضای کنواسیون در قبال به خطر انداختن یکپارچگی آن و میزان تحت تأثیر‌ قراردادن ماهیت کنواسیون توسط حق شرط‌ها، تحمل اختلاف بین قوانین و عملکرد دولت‌ها و تعهدات کنوانسیون که در دستیابی به اهداف کنوانسیون مانع تراشی می‌نماید، تأکید می‌کنم.
من همچنین این سؤال را مطرح می‌کنم که آیا معیار سازگاری کنواسیون در مورد قرارها برای پذیرش برخی حق شرط‌های اساسی که با ماهیت کنواسیون رفع هرگونه تبعیض علیه زنان در تضاد است، تأثیر‌گذار است؟ من فکر می‌کنم موضوع «هدف و روح» یک موضوع ذهنی است، عملکرد کشورهای مختلف یکسان نیست و با توجه به مواردی که برخی دولت‌ها در باب یک حق شرط خاص به مخالفت می‌پردازند، تأثیر ملاحظات سیاسی و یا برون مرزی بر آن‌ها مشخص است. من به طور خاص بر پارادوکس اعتراضات نسبت به یک حق شرط تأکید می‌کنم که همان تأثیر‌ پذیرش را دارد در زمانی که کشور‌های شرط‌گذار و کشورهای مختلف همچنان روابط قراردادی خود را حفظ می‌کنند. بنابراین، هیچ تفاوتی در تأثیرات حقوقی یک حق شرط پذیرش شده و مخالفت یک کشور که مانع از لازم الاجرا شدن قرارداد بین این دو کشور نمی‌شود، وجود ندارد. در یک تحلیل عمیق‌تر بررسی می‌کنم که چگونه حق شرط‌های مبتنی بر شریعت شامل هنجارهای متناقض (آزادی دین و قوانین برابری) می‌باشد. با یادآوری دیدگاه «متعادل کردن منافع»، من معتقدم که این می‌تواند یک رویکرد معقول باشد، اما در عمل یافتن نوعی از تعادل که علیه زنان تبعیض‌آمیز نباشد دشوار است. سپس من تحلیل می‌کنم که آیا این حق شرط‌ها حاکی از یک نوع نزاع عمیق ایدئولوژیک بین حقوق زنان در اسلام و حقوق زنان مستخرج از معاهدات حقوق بشری است؟ و اینکه حق شرط‌ها چگونه نماینده وضعیت زنان در کشورهای وضع‌کننده حق شرط‌ها هستند. سؤال من این است که عوامل محرک پشت پرده برای اعمال حق شرط چیست؟ و آیا باید حق شرط‌ها را در یک چشم‌انداز وسیع‌تر سیاسی و اجتماعی - اقتصادی از بستر داخلی و بین‌المللی بررسی کرد؟ سؤال بعدی من این است که آیا کشورها به طور واقعی به قوانین قراردادها متعهد هستند یا صرفاً در برخی از شرایط سیاسی به قراردادها متعهد می‌شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Islamic Reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

نویسنده [English]

  • Irene Pietropaoli

Research Fellow in Business and Human Rights Research, Institute of International and Comparative Law of UK, London, UK.

چکیده [English]

My study is about the Islamic reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and their compatibility under the regime of the Vienna Convention on the Law of the Treaties (VCLT). It is focused in the substantive reservations invoking Shari’a Laws entered by some Muslim countries to the central articles of the Convention which are, therefore, impermissible as incompatible whit the object and purpose of the Convention. I highlight the paradox of maximizing the Convention’s universal application at the cost of compromising its integrity and how substantive reservations to the CEDAW provisions, tolerating discrepancy between states’ laws and practice and the obligations of the Convention, pose a risk to the achievement of the Convention’s goals. I also question if the compatibility criterion of the VCLT is effective in view of acceptance of some substantive reservations of a derogatory nature I consider that the “object and purpose” test is subjective, the practice by the objecting states is not uniform and that looking at those which are (or are not) the objecting states in respect of a particular reservation, it is evident how political or extralegal considerations intervene when states evaluate the compatibility of reservations. I especially focus on the paradox of the objections to a reservation which have the same effect as an acceptance when the objecting and reserving states are still maintaining treaty relation. Therefore, there is no difference in the legal effects of a reservation accepted and one objected without opposing the entry into force of the treaty between itself and the reserving state. I further analyze how reservations invoking Shari’a Law entail conflicting norms (freedom of religion and equality rules). Recalling the view of the “balancing of interest” I argue that it could be a reasonable approach, but in practice it is difficult to find some sort of equilibrium not prejudiced against women. I then analyze if these reservations are suggestive of a wider ideological conflict between women’s rights enunciated in Islam and the ones formulated under the human rights treaties, and how they are representative of the women’s situation in the reserving states. I question what are the motivating factors behind the decision to reserve and if the reservations should be seen in the broader political and socio-economic perspective of domestic and international context? I then ask if the States ratify the Convention affording its objectives as a real commitment or if they only do so at political opportune moments? I consider that is not Islamic religious beliefs, but evolving political situations which are the determinant factors in making these kinds of reservations. I finally analyze the work of the CEDAW Committee considering its efforts disappointing as many of the new Muslim states parties did not pay attention to the criteria set out by the Committee, continuing to enter either very general reservations or reservations to specific substantive articles. The new states parties with a predominantly Muslim population referred to the Islamic Shari’a Law as prevailing over the Convention without mentioning any specific articles, clearly not following the Committee’s recommendations in the formulation of impermissible reservations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Islam
  • Reservations
  • Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
  • human rights

A) Books & Articles

- Ali, S.S. (2000). “Response of Muslim States to International Human Rights Instruments Affecting Women: A Discussion in the Light of Reservations to the Women's Convention” in: Gender and Human Rights in Islam and International Law. Equal Before Allah, Unequal Before Man?, The Hague/London/Boston: Springer Netherlands.
- An-Na’im, A.A. (1987-1988). “The Rights of Women and International Law in the Muslim Context”, Whittier L.Rev., Vol.9, p.491.
- Arzt, D.E. (1990). “The Application of International Human Rights Law in Islamic States”, Hum.Rts.Q., Vol. 12, pp.202-212.
- Askari, L. (1998). “Girls' Rights Under International Law: An Argument for Establishing Gender Equality as a Jus Cogens”, S. Cal. Rev. L. & Women's Stud., Vol .8, p.3.
- Baylis, E.A. (1999). "General Comment 24: Confronting the Problem of Reservations to Human Rights Treaties", Berkely J.Int’l L., Vol. 17, pp.277-287.
- Bowett, D.W. (1976/1977). "Reservations to Non-Restricted Multilateral Treaties ", B.Y.I.L., Vol.48, p.67.
- Brandt, M. & Kaplan, J.A. (1995-1996). “The Tension Between Women's Rights and Religious Rights: Reservations to CEDAW by Egypt, Bangladesh and Tunisia”, J.Law & Rel., Vol. 12, pp.105-121.
- Byrnes (1989). “The ‘Other’ Human Right Treaty Body: The Work of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women”, Yale J.Int’l L., Vol. 14, pp.1-57.
- Chinkin, C. (2001). “Cultural Relativism and International Law” in Courtney W. Howland (ed.) Religious Fundamentalisms and the Human Rights of Women, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Clark (1991). “The Vienna Convention Reservation Regime and the Convention on Discrimination Against Women”, A.J.I.L., Vol. 85, pp. 281-311.
- Coccia, M.(1985). “Reservation to Multilateral Treaties on Human Rights”, Cal.W.Int’l L.J., Vol. 15, pp. 45-50.
- Connors, J. (1997). “The Women's Convention in the Muslim World’ in J.P. Gardner (ed.), Human Rights as General Norms and a State's Rights to Opt Out. Reservations and Objections to Human Rights Conventions, London: British Institute of International and Comparative Law.
- Cook, R. (1990). “Reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women”, Va.J.Int’l L., Vol. 30, p. 643-645.
- Crooms, L.A. (1996). “Indivisible Rights and Intersectional Identities, or ‘What Do Women’s Rights Have to Do with the Race Convention?”, How.L.J., Vol. 18, pp.619-627.
- Deen, T. (1998). Women: Reservations Grow Over U.N. Women's Treaty, Inter Press Service, Lexis News Library, Curnws File, 15th March 1998.
- Donner, L. (1994). "Gender Bias in Drafting International Discrimination Conventions: The 1979 Women’s Convention Compared with the 1965 Racial Convention’ " Cal.W.Int’l L.J., p.241.
- Dormady, V.A. (1999). “Status of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1998”, Int'l Law, Vol. 33, pp.637-638.
- Jenefsky (1991). “Permissibility of Egypt's Reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women”, Md.J.Int’l L. & Trade, Vol. 15, pp.199 at 205.
- Keller, L. (2004-2005). “The Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women: Evolution and (Non) Implementation Worldwide”, T. Jefferson L. R., Vol. 27, pp.35- 40.
- Ljinzaad, L. (1995). “Reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women” in: Reservations to Un-Human Rights Treaties. Ratify and Ruin?, Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
- Mayer, A.E. (2001). “Religious Reservations to the Convention on the Eliminations of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women: What Do They Really Mean?”, in Courtney W. Howland (ed.) Religious Fundamentalisms and the Human Rights of Women, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Meron, Theodor (1986). Human Rights Law Making in the United Nations: A Critique of Instruments and Process, New York/Oxford: Claredon Press Oxford University Press.
- Minor, J.A. (1994). “An Analysis of Structural Weaknesses in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women”, Ga.J.Int'l & Comp.L., pp.137-144.
- Morrison & Foerster on behalf of B'nai B'rith Women (1993). “All Appropriate Measures: United States Conformance with the Requirements of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women”.
- Riddle, J. (2002). “Making CEDAW Universal: A Critique of CEDAW's Reservations Regime under Article 28 and the Effectiveness of the Reporting Process”, Geo.Wash.Int’l L.R., Vol. 34, pp. 605-628.
- Ruda, J.M. (1975). "Reservations to Treaties ", Recueil des Cours III, No. 146, p.95.
- Schabas, W.A. (1997). “Reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and the Convention on the Rights of the Child”, Wm.& Mary J. Women & L., Vol. 3, p.99.
- Sinclair, I.M. (1984). The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Manchester/Dover: Manchester University Press.
- Steiner, H. & Alston, P. (1999). International Human Rights in Context: Law, Politics, Moral, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Tomasevki, K. (1993). Women and human rights, London: Zed Books.
- Venkatraman, B. A. (1995). “Islamic States and the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women: Are the Shari'a and the Convention Compatible?”, Am. U. L. Rev., Vol. 44.

B) Documents

- Committee for the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 49th session, U.N. GAOR Supp. No. 38 at 16 U.N. Doc. A/49/38 (1994).
- Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Fourth-tent meeting of States Parties, Declarations, reservations, objections and notifications of withdrawal of reservations relating to the Convention on the Elimination of All Form of Discrimination against Women, New York (2006) CEDAW/SP/2006/2.
- Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Third session, U.N. Doc. A/39/45 (1984)
- Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination, Eleventh session, General Recommendation 20, ‘Reservations to the Convention’ U.N.Doc.A/47/38 (1993)
- Convention on the Elimination of All Form of Racial Discrimination, entered into force 4 January 1969, GA Res. 2106 A (XX), U.N.T.S. 85
- Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, adopted 18th December 1979, entered into force 3rd September 1981, U.N.Doc. A/34/46.
- Convention on the Rights of the Child,G.A. res. 44/25, annex, 44 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 49) at 167, U.N. Doc. A/44/49(1989), entered into force 2nd September 1990.
- Human Rights Committee: Fifty-second session, General Comment No. 24, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.6 (1994).
- International Court of Justice, Reservation to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Advisory Opinion 1951, I.C.J. Report 1951.
- Loizidou v. Turkey (preliminary objections), ECHR, Application no. 15318/89, Judgment of 23 March 1995.
- Multilateral treaties deposited with the Secretary General: status as at 31 December 2004, United Nations publications, Sales no. E.05.V.3, ST/LEG/SER/.E/23.
- Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, adopted 13th October 1999, entered into force 22nd December 2000 G.A. A/RES/54/4.
- Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, adopted 23rd May 1969, entered into force 27th January 1980, U.N.Doc. A/CONF 39.26.

C) Websites

- Amnesty International, Reservation to the Convention on the Elimination of All Form of Discrimination Against Women. Weakening the Protection of Women From Violence in the Middle East and North Africa Region (2004) available at: http://Web.Amnesty.Org/Library/Index/Engior510092004.
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