نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

مشاور سیاست‌های بشر دوستانه انستیتوی خاورمیانه، سیدنی، استرالیا.

چکیده

در مورد رابطه بین شرع و حقوق بشر بین‌المللی، به ویژه در مورد رفتار با زنان، مطالب زیادی نوشته شده است و تنش‌های بین شرعیت و هنجارهای حقوق بین‌الملل در خصوص برابری و عدم تبعیض به خوبی به ثبت رسیده است. شرایط امکان تفسیر قوانین شرعیت به نوعی که با حقوق بشر بین‌المللی هم راستا باشند، توسط متخصصان حقوق بشر و حقوق اسلامی آگاهانه مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. چنین نشان داده شده است که اسلام دین صلح، تحمل، عدالت و برابری است. گفته شده است که عبارات قرآنی که نقش زنان را توصیف می‌کند، باید با توجه به دوره تاریخی که برای آن‌ها نوشته شده است بررسی شود، این دوره زمانی در تاریخ است که زنان تقریباً در هر جامعه‌ای در سراسر جهان، به ویژه در شبه جزیره عربستان، نسبت به مردان جایگاه بسیار پایین‌تری داشتند. با توجه به این زمینه در این نوشتار چنین بحث می‌شود که اسلام باید به عنوان یک طرفدار برابری جنسیتی تلقی شود و از این رو باید به عنوان طرفدار برابری جنسیتی معرفی شود. این مقاله چنین استدلال می‌کند که گرچه ممکن است این تفسیر مرجح از اسلام باشد‌، اما این کمترین کمکی است که به زنان در کشورهایی مانند سودان می‌توان کرد که قانون ملی آن‌ها تبعیض‌آمیزترین جنبه‌های قانون شریعت را در برگرفته و تقویت می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Sharia Law, Traditional Justice and Violence against Women: Lessons from Sudan

نویسنده [English]

  • Rebecca Barber

Humanitarian Policy Advisor at the Middle East Institute, Sydney, Australia.

چکیده [English]

There has been a great deal written about the relationship between sharia law and international human rights law, particularly with regards to the treatment of women. The tensions between sharia law and international law norms of equality and non-discrimination have been well documented, and the possibilities for interpreting sharia law in a manner that accords with international human rights law have been insightfully explored by scholars of human rights and Islamic law. It has been shown that Islam is a religion of peace, tolerance, justice and equality. It has been said that the Qur’anic passages describing the role of women should be understood in the context in which they were written, which was a time in history in which women were seen as vastly inferior to men in almost every society throughout the world, particularly in the Arabian peninsula. Read in this context, it is argued, Islam must be seen as an advocate for gender equality, and should thus be interpreted as standing for gender equality today. This paper argues that, while this may indeed be the preferred interpretation of Islam, this is of little assistance to women in countries such as Sudan whose national legislation enshrines and enforces the most discriminatory aspects of sharia law.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sharia Law
  • Traditional Justice
  • Violence against women
  • Sudan

A) Books & Article

- Al-Hibri, Azizah (2001). “Muslim Women’s Rights in the Global Village: Opportunities and Challenges”, Journal of Law and Religion, Vol. 15, p. 37, 47.

- Ali Muhammad, Maulana (1945). A Manual of Hadith, Alexandria,: Library of Alexandria.

- Al-Marghinani, Ali ibn Bakr (1982). The Hedaya or Guide: A Commentary on the Mussulman Law, Charles Hamilton trans, first published, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

- Anas, Malik ibn (1989). Al-Muwatta of Imam Malik ibn Anas: The First Formulations of Islamic Law, Aisha Abdurrahman Bewley trans, first published, London: Bookwork.

- Asad, Muhammed(1984). The Message of the Quran, London: The Book Foundation.

- Baderin, Mashood A (2003). International Human Rights and Islamic Law, London: Oxford Press.

- Bukhari, Muhammad ibn Ismail (1976). Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī: The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih al-Bukhar, Muhammad Muhsin Khan trans, 2nd revised ed, Texas: Dar-us-Salam Publications.

-  Caprioli, Mary (2003). Gender Equality and Civil Wars, Social Development Department, Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network.

- Caprioli, Mary (2005). “Primed for Violence: The Role of Gender Inequality in Predicting Internal Violence”, International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 49, No. 2, p.161.

- Caprioli, Mary (2001). “Gender, Violence and International Crisis”, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 45, No. 4, p.503.

- Caprioli, Mary (2000). “Gendered Conflict”, Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 37, No. 1, p.51.

- Caprioli, Mary and Trumbore, Peter (2003). “Ethnic Discrimination and Interstate Violence: Testing the International Impact of Domestic Behavior”, Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 40, No. 1, p.5.

- Bussmann, Margit (2007). “Gender Equality, Good Governance and Peace”, (Paper presented at Making Sense of a Pluralist World, Sixth Pan-European International Relations Conference, Turin, 12-15 September 2007)

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- Pearl, David and Menski, Werner (1998). Muslim Family Law, 3rd ed, London: Sweet & Maxwell.

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- Yusuf Ali, Abdullah (1938). The Holy Quran: Text, Translation and Commentary, London: The Islamic Foundation.

- United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia Pacific, “Report of The Sub-Regional Training Workshop On Elimination Of Violence Against Women In Partnership With Men” (2-5 December 2003) 2-3.

- United Nations Development Program (2008). “Human Development Report 2007/2008: Fighting Climate Change: Human Solidarity in a Divided World”.

- Warriner, Ina and Tessler, Mark (1997). “Gender, Feminism, and Attitudes Toward International Conflict: Exploring Relationships with Survey Data from the Middle East”, World Politics, Vol. 49, No. 2, p.250.

B) Documents

- Beijing Platform for Action, Fourth World Conference on Women, [125], UN Doc A/CONF.177/20 (1995) and A/CONF.177/20/Add.1 (1995).

- Biro, Situation of Human Rights in the Sudan, UN Doc E/CN.4/1994/48 (1994), above n 57, [102].

- Constitution of Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan 1952 s 105.

- Constitution of Kuwait 1962 s 2.

- Constitution of Libya 1969 s 8.

- Constitution of Saudi Arabia 1992 s 1.

- Constitution of Sudan 1998 s 65.

- Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 1980 s 2.

- Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan 2004 s 2.

- Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan 1973 s 2.

- Constitution of the Kingdom of Bahrain 2002 s 2.

- Constitution of the Republic of Maldives 2008 s 10.

- Constitution of the Republic of Yemen 1994 s 3.

- Constitution of The Second Republic of the Gambia 1996 s 7.

- Constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic 1973 s 2.

- Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, GA Res 48/104, 48th Sess, Agenda

- Interim National Constitution of the Republic of Sudan 2005 s 31.

- Interim National Constitution of the Republic of Sudan 2005.

- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966.

- International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1954.

- Item 111, UN GAOR, UN Doc A/Res/48/104 (1993).

- Permanent Constitution of the State of Qatar 2003 s 2.

- Personal Matters Act for Muslims 1991 s 52.

- Resolution on Women, Peace and Security, SC Res 1820, UN SCOR, 5916th mtg, UN Doc S/Res/1820 (2008).

- The White Book: The Basic Law of the Sultanate of Oman 1996 s 2.

- Universal Declaration of Human Rights, GA Res 217A (III), art 1, UN Doc A/810/71 (1948).

- World Bank, Engendering Development – Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources and Voice, 2001.

C) Websites

- Bunch, Charlotte ‘The Intolerable Status Quo: Violence against Women and Girls,’ The Progress of nations 1997 <http://www.unicef.org/pon97/40-49.pdf> at 25 June 2007.

- Obaid, Thoyara Ahmed (2004). 'Women, Peace and Security, Responding to the Needs to Victims of Gender Based Violence' (Statement, UN SC Open Debate on SC Res 1325 on Women, Peace and Security, 2004) <http://www.unfpa.org/news/news.cfm?ID=523> at 7 January 2009.

- UN Division for the Advancement of Women, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, ‘Declarations, Reservations and Objections to CEDAW’ <http://un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/ reservations-country.htm> at 7 January 2008.

- UN Economic, Social and Cultural Organisation, 'Statement on Women's Contribution to a Culture of Peace' (Statement presented to the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing 1995) <http://www.unesco.org/ cpp/uk/declarations/wcpbei.htm> at 11 January 2008.

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