نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استاد دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه ایلورین، ایلورین، نیجریه.

چکیده

یکی از مهمترین چالش‌های یک تمدن و پارامتر ارزیابی آن، نحوه برخورد با کسانی است که به آن تمدن تعلق ندارند. دوگانگی بین «ما» و «آن‌ها» در تمدن‌ها متفاوت است. در گذشته، تعامل بین تمدن‌ها بسیار کمتر و محدودتر بوده است. اما مدت‌هاست همه چیز تغییر کرده و جهان به یک دهکده جهانی تبدیل شده است. با این حال، از نظر دینی، فرهنگی، قومیت و زبان بسیار کثرت‌گرا باقی مانده است. تنوع در دنیای معاصر به دلیل وجود هم زمان تمدن‌های مختلف در جهان است که هر کدام فرهنگ، دیدگاه و ارزش‌های متمایز خود را دارند. فرهنگ غربی، فرهنگ اسلامی، فرهنگ شرقی و فرهنگ آفریقایی برخی از فرهنگ‌های برجسته امروز هستند. در این میان جهانی‌سازی مشکلات خاص خود را دارد. از یک طرف، جهان تحت فشار قرار دارد تا به یک محیط تک فرهنگی مانند فرهنگ غربی تبدیل شود. این وضعیت به دلیل برتری ذاتی تمدن غربی بر تمدن‌های دیگر نیست بلکه به دلیل تهاجم فرهنگی غرب به جهان است. جریان اطلاعات همیشه از سمت غرب به سوی بقیه جهان بوده است. بنابراین، تلاش برای صلح در دنیای مدرن باید به چگونگی سازگاری فرهنگ‌های متنوع جهان، اول در تمدن‌‌های خاص و دوم در جهانی در قالب دهکده به ویژه در متن سازمان ملل بپردازد. گذشته درس خوبی برای آینده ارائه می‌دهد. در این مقاله، چگونگی دستیابی سه تمدن اسلامی، آفریقایی و غربی در قالب اولیه و تاریخی خود و همچنین به معنای مدرن و امروزی به یکدیگر شبیه شده‌اند. تمدن اسلامی از یک محیط چند قومی و چند مذهبی پدید آمده است. رویکرد اسلامی علی‌رغم اینکه اعتقاد کامل به درستی آیین و دین خود و شیوه زندگی مبتنی بر آن را دارد، در مواجهه با دیگر ادیان رویه تحمل و احترام را اتخاذ می‌کند. اسلام آزادی دین را برای غیرمسلمانان به رسمیت می‌شناسد و این موضوع را به صورت جامع و کامل بیان می‌کند. اسلام این قوانین یا فرهنگ خود را بر آن‌ها تحمیل نمی‌کند بلکه استقلال اجتماعی، فرهنگی و قضایی را برای غریبه‌ها در درون مرزهای خود اعطا می‌کند. این نگرش که در گذشته وجود داشته هنوز در برخی از کشورهای مدرن اسلامی مانند ایران قابل مشاهده است. فرهنگ آفریقا یک امر بسیار متفاوت است. ویژگی بارز آفریقایی‌ها رفتار گرم آن‌ها با غریبه‌ها و احترام آن‌ها به استقلال فرهنگی سایر مردم است. رویکرد تمدن غربی با رویکرد تمدن‌‌های اسلامی و آفریقایی در تضاد است. غرب همواره براساس برتری پذیرفته شده خود بر دیگر انسان‌ها، سیاست تسلط بر آن‌ها را دنبال کرده است. این رویکرد که برای دفاع از آن توجیهات منطقی و ایدئولوژیک زیادی توسعه یافته‌اند در دوران معاصر همچنان یک منبع اصطکاک و تنش است. پیشنهاد می‌شود که مدل‌های ارائه شده توسط فرهنگ‌های اسلامی و آفریقایی به عنوان مبنایی برای تعامل مدرن توسط افراد متعلق به فرهنگ‌های مختلف مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Coping With Otherness in a Globalized World: Lessons from Islamic, African, and Western Perspectives

نویسنده [English]

  • Abdulmumini A. Oba

Professor, School of Law, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

چکیده [English]

One of the major challenges for a civilization - and a parameter for assessing it - is how it treats those who do not belong to that civilization. The dichotomy between “we” and “them” is made variously across civilizations. In the past, interactions across civilizations are less voluminous and less intense. But things have changed. the world has become a global village. Yet, it remains very pluralistic in terms of religion, culture, ethnicity, and language. The diversity of the contemporary world is due to the existence of concurrent civilizations on the world, each with its distinct culture, world view and values. Western culture, Islamic culture, oriental culture and African culture are some of the more prominent cultures today. Globalization is not without its problems. For one thing, the world is being pressurized into become a mono-cultural environment patterned after western culture. This position is not because of any inherent superiority of western civilization to the other civilization but because of the cultural invasion of the world by the west. Information flow is the world has been essentially one way - from the west to the rest. The quest for peace in the modern world must therefore address how the diverse cultures of the world are accommodated, first within specific civilizations and secondly in the world at a global level particularly within the context of the United Nations. The past offers a good lesson for the future. This paper looks at how three civilizations - Islamic, African, and western - in their pristine historical and modern forms - have approached otherness. Islamic civilization emerged from a multi-ethnic and multi-religious environment. The Islamic approach is one of tolerance and respect for otherness in spite of the full conviction of the rightness of its religious creed and way of life. Islam recognizes the freedom of religion for non-Muslims and expresses this in a comprehensive and complete manner. It does not impose its laws or culture on them but grants social, cultural and judicial autonomy to these strangers within its borders. This attitude which was in the past is still observable in some modern Islamic countries such as Iran. African culture is a very diverse affair. The common traits amongst Africans include their warm treatment of strangers and their respect for the cultural independence of other peoples. The attitude of western civilization contrasts with the attitudes of Islamic and African civilizations. The West has consistently pursued a policy of domination of other peoples based on its perceived superiority over them. This attitude, for which various ideological and intellectual justifications have been advanced in defense of, remains in contemporary times, a constant source of friction and tension. It is suggested that models provided by Islamic and African cultures be used as a basis for modern interaction by persons belonging to different cultures.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Globalized World
  • Islamic
  • African
  • Western
  • human rights

A) Books & Articles

- Abdullah (ed.), Abdul Rahman (not dated). Islamic Dress Code for Women, Riyadh: Darussalam.

- Akinsola Akiwowo, Ajobi and Ajogbe: Variations on the Theme of Sociation (Inaugural Lecture Series No. 46 delivered at the University of Ife on 10 June, 1980) (Ile-Ife: University of Ife Press, 1983) p. 19.

- Al ‘Ala Mawdudi, Allamah Abu (1987). “Human Rights in Islam”, Al-Tawhid, A Quarterly Journal of Islamic Thought and Culture, Vol. IV, No. 3.

- Al-Hilali, Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din and Khan, Muhammad Muhsin (2007). Interpretation of the Meanings of the Noble Qur’an in the English Language, Riyadh: Maktaba Dar-us-Salaam.

- Ali, Sayyed Ameer (1979). A Short History of the Saracens, New Delhi: Kutub Khana Ishayat-ul-Islam.

- Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf (1998). State in Islam, translated by El-Falah, Cairo: El-Falah.

- An-Na’im, Abdullahi Ahmed (1990). “Human Rights in the World: Socio-Political Conditions and Scriptural Imperatives”, Harvard Human Rights Journal, Vol. 3, pp.13-52.

- An-Na’im, Abdullahi Ahmed (1990). Towards an Islamic Reformation, Syracuse, new York: Syracuse University Press.

- An-Na’im, Abdullahi Ahmed (1994). “State Responsibility under International Human Rights Law to Change Religious and Customary Laws” in Rebecca J. Cook (ed.), Human Rights of Women: National and International Perspectives, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

- Areji, A. C. (2005). “Eurocentricity, Afrocentricity, and Globalization”, UCHE, Vol. 11, pp. 55-67.

- Bielefeldt, Heiner (1995). “Muslim Voices in the Human Rights Debate”, Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 17, pp. 597 – 617.

- Chevigny, Paul (2004). “Repression in the United States after September 11 Attack”, Sur International Journal on Human Rights, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp 142 – 159.

- Chon, Margaret and E. Arzt, Donna (2005). “Walking While Muslim”, Law and Contemporary Problems, Vol. 68, 2005, pp. 215 – 254.

- Coker, G. B. A. (1958). Family Property Among the Yoruba, London: Sweet and Maxwell.

- Dalhatu, M. B. (2007). “Legal Status of an Alien in Nigeria: Admission, Treatment and Expulsion”, Ahmadu Bello University Journal of Public and International Law, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2007, pp.136 – 145.

- Dike, Azuka A. (1985). The Resilience of Igbo Culture: A Case Study of Awka Town, Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishers.

- Driberg, J. H. (1955). “The African Conception of Law”, Journal of the African Society, Vol. 34, pp. 230 – 233.

- Elias, T. O. (1956). The Nature of African Law, Manchester: Manchester University Press,

- Fadipe, N. A. (1970). The Sociology of the Yoruba, Ibadan: Ibadan University Press.

- Forsythe, David P. (2006). “United States Policy toward Enemy Detainees in the ‘War on Terrorism’”, Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 28, pp465 – 491.

- Gunn, T. Jeremy (2003). “The Complexity of Religion and the Definition of ‘Religion’ in International Law”, Harvard Human Rights Journal, Vol.16, pp.189-215.

- Haykal, Muhammad Husayn (1982). The Life of Muhammad, translated from the 6th edition by Isma’il Ragi a. al-Faruqi, Lagos: Islamic Publication Bureau.

- Hitti, P. K. (1970). History of the Arabs, London: Macmillan.

- Huntington, Samuel (1996). The Clash of Civilization and The Remaking of World Order,New York: Simon & Schuster.

- Huntington, Samuel (1996). “The Clash of Civilization?”, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 72.

- ICCPR.

- Jaffe, Louis L. (1956). “The Right to Travel: The Passport Problem”, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 35, 1956, p.17.

- Jamo, Nuhu Mohammed (2006). “An Appraisal of the “Right” to Citizenship under the 1999 Constitution”, Journal of Private and Comparative Law, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 167 – 176.

- Khan, Muhammad Zafrullah (1988). Islam and Human Rights, Tilford, Surrey: Islam International Publications, Ltd.

- Kurawa, Ado (2000). Shari’ah and the Press in Nigeria: Islam versus Christian Western Civilization, Kano: Kurawa Holdings.

- Lloyd, P. C. (1955). “The Yoruba Lineage”, Africa, Vol. 25, No. 3, p. 241 (Yoruba).

Maogoto, Jackson N. (2006). “America’s War on Terror: Rattling International Law with Raw Power?”, ExpressO Preprint Series, Paper 1348, 2006.

- Mawdudi, Abul A’la (1980). Towards Understanding Islam, London: The Islamic Foundation.

- Mawdudi, Sayyid Abul A’la (1984). The Islamic Movement – Dynamic of Values, Power and Change, London: The Islamic Foundation,

- Modupe Kolawole, Mary Ebun (1997). Womanism and African Consciousness, Trenton: NJ: African World Press.

- Mutahhari, Murtaza(1987). On the Islamic Hijab, Teheran: Islamic.

- Naqavi, Ali Muhammad (1988). Islam and Nationalism, Teheran: Islamic Propagation Organization, 2nd ed.

- Nekam, Alexander (1966). Experiences in African Customary Law, Third Melville Memorial Lecture, Centre of African Studies, Edinburgh University.

- Nnoli, Okwudibu (1979). Ethnic Politics in Nigeria, Enugu: Fourth Dimension.

- Oba, A. A (2005). “Islam, the West and Human Rights: Reconciling the Divergences” in Proceddings of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Shari’ah and Civil Law II: Towards a Methodology of Harmonisation29th – 30th June, 2005, Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws, International Islamic University, Malaysia.

- Oba, A. A. (2001). “The Right to Time for Worship: International Conventions and the Practice in England, America and Nigeria”, Journal of Malaysian and Comparative Law,Vol. 28, pp.69-86.

- Oba, A. A. (2004). “Religious Rights and the Corporate World in Nigeria: Products and Personnel Perspectives”, Recht in Afrika, pp. 200 - 201.

- Paul Gray, “Russia’s Prophet in Exile” TIME, July 22, 1989, 54 at p. 58.

- Perry, M. J. (1997). “Are Human Rights Universal? The Relativist Challenge and Related Matters”, Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 461 – 509.

- Quran

- Ramadan, Said (1970). Islamic Law: Its Scope and Equity, London: second edition.

- Reale, Egidio (1931). “The Passport Question”, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 9, p. 506.

- Salihu, Umar (2005). “The Rights and Obligations of the Non-Muslim under Sharia”, Journal of Islamic and Comparative Law, Vol. 25, 2005: 192 – 193,

- Satterthwaite, Margaret (2006). “Extraordinary Rendition And Disappearances In The “War On Terror”, Gonzaga Journal of International Law,Vol. 10, No. 1, 2006, pp. 70 – 75.

- Senyonjo, Manisuli (2008). “Moslem Women, Religion and the Hijab: A Human Rights Perspective”, East African Journal of Peace Human Rights, Vol. 14, No. 1, p.148.

- Syed Qutb’s tafsir (commentary on the Quran), Fil Zilal Quran

- Yap, Po- Jen (2005). “Four Models of Equality”, Loyola Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review, Vol. 27.

- Young, Crawford (1993). The Politics of Cultural Pluralism, Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books.

B) Documents

- Afroyim v Rusk 387 US 253 (1967).

- Baldwin v Montana Fish and Game Commission 436 S 371 (1978).

- Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999

- Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1979.

- Corfield v Coryell 4 Wash. C.C. 371 (1823);

- European Court of Human Rights in Dahlab v Switzerland Decision of 15 February

- 2001, Application No. 42393/98, 2001-V. ECHR 447,

- G.A. Res. 40/144, annex, 40 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 53) at 252, U.N. Doc. A/40/53 (1985).

- G.A. res. 45/158, annex, 45 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 49A) at 262, U.N. Doc. A/45/49 (1990), entered into force 1 July 2003.

- Leyla Sahin v Turkey (2005) 41 EHRR 8

- Roger v Bellei 401 US 815 (1971).

- Toomer v Witsell 334 US 385 (1948)

- United States v Macintosh 283 US 605 (1930) per Justice Hughes at pp.633 – 634.

- United States v Seeger 380 U. S. 163 (1965) per Justice Field at p. 342

- Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948.

C) Websites

- Annan, Kofi (2001). “We can love what we are, without hating what – and who - we are not” Nobel Lecture 10 December 2001, UN Press Release SG/SM/8071 available at http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2001/ sgsm8071. doc.htm last accessed on 5 March, 2009.

- Armacost, Barbara E. (2008). “Interrogation in a Post-9/11 World”, University of Virginia Law School, Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper Series Year 2008 Paper 87 available at http://law. bepress.com/uvalwps/ uva publiclaw/art87 .

- Coleman, Doraine Lambelet (1998). “The Seattle Compromise: Multicultural Sensitivity and Americanization”, Duke Law Journal, Vol.74, pp. 767-781. Available online at: http://www.lawduke.edu/shell/cite/p1?47+ Duke+ L+J+717 .

- Fukuyama, Francis (1992). The End of History and the Last Man (Penguin, 1992), full text reproduction of the introduction available at : http://www. marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/fukuyama.htm .

- Gunn., T. Jeremy, Fearful Symbols: The Islamic Headscarf and the European Court of Human Rights paper available at: strasbourgconference.org/papers/ Sahin%20by%Gunn%2021%20by%20T.%20Jeremy%20Gunn.pdf .

- Hostmaelingen, Njal, Hijab in Strasbourg: Clear conclusions, unclear reasoning paper available at: www.strasbourgconference.org/papers/Sahin_ IslamInEurope_060217TL rev.doc.

- Kreimer, Seth F. (2007). “Rays of Sunlight in a Shadow “War”: FOIA, the Abuses of Anti-Terrorism, and the Strategy of Transparency” University of Pennsylvania Law School, Scholarship at Penn Law, Year 2007 Paper 196 available at: http://lsr.nellco.org/upenn/wps/papers/196.

- Krueger, Stephen (2009) “Passports in the Twenty-First Century”, Global Jurist, Vol. 9, Iss. 1, available at: http://www.bepress.com/gj/vol9/ iss1/art1.

- Lindholm, Tore (). Comments on the Case of Leyla Şahin v. Turkey: Political and Public Morality Aspects paper available at: www.strasbourgconference.org/ papers/LindholmCommentsEnglishFINAL.doc.

- Luban, David (2008). “Torture and the Professions” Georgetown Law Faculty Working Papers, July 2008 available at http://lsr.nellco.org/ georgetown/ fwps/papers/69/.

- Moe, Christian. Refah Revisited: Strasbourg’s Construction of Islam at: www.strasbourgconference.org.

- Phan, Jean (2007). “The American Tradition of Racial Profiling”, Express O Preprint Series, Year 2007 Paper 1989 available at: http://law.bepress.com/ expresso/eps/1989.

- Roosevelt III, Kermit (2008). “Detention and Interrogation in the Post-9/11 World”, University of Pennsylvania Law School, Scholarship at Penn Law, Year 2008 Paper 227 available at http://lsr.nellco.org/upenn/wps/ papers/227.

- Satterthwaite, Margaret L. (2008). “The Story of El–Masri v. Tenet: Human Rights and Humanitarian Law in the “War on Terror”, New York University School of Law, New York University Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers, Year 2008 Paper 109 available at http://lsr.nellco.org/ upenn/wps/papers/227 .

- Sheikh, Irum (2004). “Abuse in American Prisons”, Muslim World Journal of Human Rights Vol. 1, Article 4, available at: http://www.bepress.com/ mwjhr/vol1/art4.

- Swiney, Chrystie Flournoy (2006). “Racial Profiling of Arabs and Muslims in the US: Historical, Empirical, and Legal Analysis Applied to the War on Terrorism”, Muslim World Journal of Human Rights, Vol. 3, Issue.1, Article 3 available at : http://www.bepress.com/mwjhr/vol3/iss1/art3

- Waxman, Matthew (2008). “Police and National Security: American Local Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism After 9/11”, Columbia Law School, Columbia Public Law & Legal Theory Working Papers Year 2008 Paper 08157 available at: http://lsr.nellco.org/columbia/pllt/papers/08157.

CAPTCHA Image