University of California, Berkeley, Ph.D., 1982.
Georgetown University, B.S.F.S., 1973, M.A., 1975.
Andrew W. Mellon Professor, Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver, 1992- .
Associate Professor, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1987-1992. (Assistant Professor, 1984-87.)
Assistant Professor, College of the Holy Cross, 1981-1984. Visiting Instructor, Tulane University, 1980-1981. Instructor, Mills College, 1979-1980.
National University of Singapore, 2008. University of Connecticut, 2002.
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel, 1996. National University, Heredia, Costa Rica, 1994.
University of the Republic, Montevideo, Uruguay, 1990.
2013. Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice, 3rd ed. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. (Chinese translation 2007, Indian edition 2006, Second edition 2003, Arabic translation 2002,
Chinese translation 1998, Turkish translation 1995, Spanish translation 1994, First edition 1989.)
2012. International Human Rights, 4th ed. Boulder: Westview Press. (Third edition 2008, Korean translation 2004, Serbo-Croation translation 1999, Second edition 1998, First edition 1993).
2000. Realism and International Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Chinese translation, 2002. Korean translation, 2004.)
1987. International Handbook of Human Rights. Westport: Greenwood Press (co-editor with Rhoda E. Howard).
1985. The Concept of Human Rights. London: Croom Helm, New York: St. Martin's Press.
2015a. “Normative versus Taxonomic Humanity: Varieties of Human Dignity in the Western Tradition.” Journal of Human Rights 14 (January): 1-22.
2015b. “The Discourse of Anarchy in IR.” International Theory 7 (November): 393-415.
2012a. “The Differentiation of International Societies: An Approach to Structural International Theory.” European Journal of International Relations 18 (January): 147-172.
2012b. “The Elements of the Structures of International Societies.” International Organization 66 (Autumn): 609-643.
2009a. “Rethinking Political Structures: From ‘Ordering Principles’ to ‘Vertical Differentiation’ – and Beyond,” International Theory 1 (March): 49-86.
2009b. “Yes a Myth: A Reply to Kirkup and Evans,” Human Rights Quarterly 31 (February): 239-255 (co-author with Daniel Whelan).
2009c. “The Reality of Western Support for Human Rights: A Reply to Susan L. Kang,” Human Rights Quarterly 32 (November): 1030-1054 (co-author with Daniel Whelan).
2008a. “Human Rights: Both Universal and Relative (A Reply to Michael Goodhart),” Human Rights Quarterly 30 (February): 194-204.
2008b. “Human Rights and Social Provision,” Journal of Human Rights 7 (June): 123-138.
2007a. “The Relative Universality of Human Rights,” Human Rights Quarterly 29 (May): 281-306.
2007b. “The West, Economic and Social Rights, and the Global Human Rights Regime: Setting the Record Straight,” Human Rights Quarterly 29 (November): 908-949 (co-author with Daniel Whelan).
2006a. “Sovereign Inequalities and Hierarchy in Anarchy: American Power and International Society,” European Journal of International Relations 12 (June): 139-170.
2002a. “Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention,” Journal of Human Rights 1 (March): 93-109.
2000a. “Para Alem do Realismo e de seus Criticos: Novas Pesquisas Realistas e as Possibilidades para um Engajamento Constructivo,” Contexto Internacional 22 (Janeiro/Junho): 137-190.
1999a. “Human Rights, Democracy, and Development,” Human Rights Quarterly 21 (August): 608-632.
1998a. “Human Rights: A New Standard of Civilization?” International Affairs 74 (January): 1-24
1998b. “Unfinished Business,” PS: Political Science and Politics 1 (September): 530-536.
1998c. “Realism: Roots and Renewal,” (review essay) Review of International Studies 24:399-405. 1997a. “Conversing with Straw Men While Ignoring Dictators: A Reply to Roger Ames,”
Ethics and International Affairs 11: 207-214.
1996a. “Rethinking Human Rights,” Current History 95 (November): 387-391. 1996b. “Human Rights and Asian Values,” Sasang (Fall): 28-45 (in Korean).
1994a. “Post-Cold War Reflections on International Human Rights,” Ethics and International Affairs 8: 97-118.
1993a. “Human Rights, Humanitarian Crisis, and Humanitarian Intervention,” International Journal 48 (Autumn): 607-640.
1992a. “Human Rights in the New World Order,” World Policy Journal 9 (Spring): 249-77. 1990a. “Global Policy Studies: A Skeptical View,” Journal of Peace Research 27 (May): 221-30.
1988a. “Assessing National Human Rights Performance: A Theoretical Framework,” Human Rights Quarterly 10 (May): 214-48 (co-author with Rhoda E. Howard).
1988b. “Human Rights at the UN, 1955-85: The Question of Bias,” International Studies Quarterly 32 (September): 275-303.
1988c. “Human Rights: The Impact of International Action,” International Journal 43 (Spring): 241-63.
1987a. “Reply to Mitchell,” American Political Science Review 81 (September): 924-27 (co-author with Rhoda E. Howard).
1986a. “The Emerging International Regime against Torture,” Netherlands International Law Review 33: 1-23.
1986b. “Human Dignity, Human Rights and Political Regimes,” American Political Science Review 80 (September): 801-17 (co-author with Rhoda E. Howard).
1986c. “International Human Rights: A Regime Analysis,” International Organization 40 (Summer): 599-642.
1985a. “The Force of Rights: Parent on 'Moral Specification,'“ Philosophical Studies 47 (January): 131-39.
1985b. “In Search of the Unicorn: The Jurisprudence of the Right to Development,” and “The Theology of the Right to Development: A Reply to Alston,” California Western International Law Journal 15 (Summer): 473-509, 519-23.
1985c. “Satisfying Basic Needs in Africa: Human Rights, Markets and the State,” Africa Today 32: 7-24.
1984a. “Cultural Relativism and Universal Human Rights,” Human Rights Quarterly 6 (November): 400-419.
1984b. “Human Rights and Development: Complementary or Competing Concerns?” World Politics 36 (January): 255-83.
1984c. “Human Rights, Humanitarian Intervention, and American Foreign Policy: Law, Morality and Politics,” Journal of International Affairs 37 (Winter): 311-28.
1983. “The Human Rights Priorities of the UN: A Rejoinder to Alston,” International Organization 37 (Summer): 547-50.
1982a. “How Are Rights and Duties Correlative?” Journal of Value Inquiry 16: 287-97. 1982b. “Human Rights and Foreign Policy,” World Politics 34 (July): 574-95.
1982c. “Human Rights and Human Dignity: An Analytic Critique of Non-Western Human Rights Conceptions,” American Political Science Review 76 (June): 303-16.
1982d. “Human Rights as Natural Rights,” Human Rights Quarterly 4 (August): 391-405.
1981. “Recent Trends in UN Human Rights Activity: Description and Polemic,” International Organization 35 (Autumn): 633-55.
1980. “Natural Law and Right in Aquinas' Political Thought,” Western Political Quarterly 33 (December): 520-35.
2013a. “Differentiation: Type and Dimension Approaches.” In Matthias Albert, Barry Buzan, and Michael Zürn, eds. Bringing Sociology into International Relations: World Politics as Differentiation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2013b. “Realism.” In Scott Burchill and Andrew Linklater, eds. Theories of International Relations 5thed. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. (4thed. 2009, 3rded. 2005.)
2013c. “Human Rights.” In John Baylis, Steve Smith, and Patricia Owens, eds. The Globalization of World Politics. 6thed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (5thed. 2011. 4thed.2008.)
2012c. “Military Intervention and Human Rights.” In Peter M. Haas, John A. Hird, and Beth McBratney, eds. Controversites in Globalization: Contending Approaches to International Relations. Washington, D. C.: C Q Press. (1sted. 2009.)
2008c. “The Ethics of Realism.” In Christian Reus-Smit and Duncan Snidal, eds., The Oxford Handbook of International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2007c. “The West and Economic Rights.” In Shareen Hertel and Lanse Minkler, eds.,
Economic Rights: Conceptual, Measurement, and Policy Issues. Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress.
2007d. “La soberanía de los Estados y los derechos humanos.” In Ana Covarrubias Velasco and Daniel Ortega Nieto, eds., La protección internacional de los derechos humanos: un reto en el siglo xxi. Mexcio, D.F.: El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Internacionales.
2006b. “Human Rights.” In John Dryzek, Bonnie Honig, and Anne Phillips, eds., Oxford Handbook of Political Theory, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2006c. “Is There a Right to Peace?” In Julie Mertus and Jeffrey W. Helsing, eds., Human Rights and Conflict. United States Institute of Peace Press, 2006.
2005a. “Realism.” In Scott Burchill and Andrew Linklater, eds., Theories of International Relations, 3rd edition, Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave.
2005b. “The Virtues of Legalization.” In Basak Cali and Saladin Meckled-Garcia, eds.,
Legalization and Human Rights, London: Routledge.
2004a. “International Human Rights: Unintended Consequences of the War on Terrorism.” In Thomas G. Weiss, Margaret E. Crahan, and John Goering (eds.), Wars on Terrorism and Iraq: Human Rights, Unilateralism and U.S. Foreign Policy, New York: Routledge.
2004b. “Introduction.” In Debra Liang-Fenton (ed.), Implementing U.S. Human Rights Policy, Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace. (co-author with Debra Liang-Fenton).
2003a. “The Universal Declaration Model: A Liberal Defense.” In Gene M. Lyons and James Mayall (eds.), International Human Rights in the 21st Century: Protecting the Rights of Groups, Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
2003b. “The West.” In Edward A. Kolodziej (ed.), A Force Profonde: The Power, Promise, and Politics of Human Rights, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
2002b. “Beyond Realism and Its Critics: New Realist Research and the Possibilities for Constructive Engagement.” In Stephanie Lawson (ed.), The New Agenda for International Relations, Malden: Polity Press.
2001a. “Ethics and International Human Rights.” In Danny Warner and Jean-Marc Coicaud, Ethics and International Affairs: Extent and Limits. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
2000b. “Conclusion: An Overview.” In David P. Forsythe, Human Rights and Comparative Foreign Policy. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
2000c. “Human Rights, Democracy, and U.S. Foreign Policy.” In David P. Forsythe, The United States and Human Rights: Looking Inward and Outward. Lincoln: University of NebraskaPress.
2000d. “Human Rights, Security, and the Dilemmas of Intervention: Reflections after Kosovo.” In Tai-joon Kwon and Dong-Sung Kim, World Order and Peace in the New Millennium. Seoul: Korean National Commission for UNESCO.
1999b. “The Social Construction of International Human Rights.” In Tim Dunne and Nicholas J. Wheeler, Human Rights in Global Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1999c. “Human Rights and Asian Values: A Defense of 'Western' Universalism.” In Joanne R. Bauer and Daniel A. Bell, The East Asian Challenge for Human Rights. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1999d. “Human Rights, Globalization, and the State.” In Monique Castermans-Holleman, G. J. van Hoof, and Jacqueline Smith, The Role of the Nation-State in the 21st Century: Human Rights, International Organizations and Foreign Policy. Essays in Honour of Peter Baehr. Cambridge:Kluwer Law International.
1999e. “Non-Discrimination and Sexual Orientation: Making a Place for Sexual Minorities in the Global Human Rights Regime.” In Peter Baehr, Cees Flinterman, and Mignon Senders, Innovation and Inspiration: Fifty Years of the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights. Amsterdam: Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.
1997b. “Human Rights.” Encyclopedia of U.S. Foreign Relations. Oxford University Press, 1997.
1997c. “Human Rights Issues and International Governance.” In Jin-Young Chung, Global Governance: The Role of International Institutions in a Changing World. Sungnam, Korea: The SejongInstitute.
1995a. “State Sovereignty and International Intervention: The Case of Human Rights.” In Gene M. Lyons and Michael Mastanduno, Beyond Westphalia?: State Sovereignty and International Intervention. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
1995b. “Realism and the Academic Study of International Relations.” In James Farr, John S. Dryzek and Stephen T. Leonard, Political Science in History: Research Programs and Political Traditions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1995c. “The Past, the Present, and the Future Prospects.” In Milton J. Esman and Shibley Telhami, International Organizations and Ethnic Conflict. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
1994b. “Human Rights and International Organizations: States, Sovereignty, and the International Community.” In Friedrich Kratochwil and Edward D. Mansfield, International Organization: A Reader. New York: Harper Collins
1994c. “Human Rights.” In Michael T. Klare, Peace and World Security Studies: A Curriculum Guide. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
1994d. “Human Rights in a New World Order: Implications for a New Europe.” In David P. Forsythe, Human Rights in the New Europe: Problems and Progress. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
1994e. “International Human Rights and Health Care Reform.” In Audrey R. Chapman (ed.), Health Care Reform: A Human Rights Approach. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
1993b. “Third Generation Rights.” In C. Brolmann et al., Peoples and Minorities in International Law. The Hague: Kluwer.
1992b. “Twentieth Century Realism.” In David Mapel and Terry Nardin, Traditions of International Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1992c. “Conceptual Issues in Monitoring Human Rights Violations.” In Alex P. Schmid and Albert J. Jongman (eds.), Monitoring Human Rights Violations. Leiden: Center for the Study of Social Conflicts.
1992d. “The United Nations and the Global Drug Control Regime.” In Peter H. Smith, Drug Policy in the Americas. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
1991a. “Security, Human Rights and East-West Relations: Theoretical Bases of the Linkage.” In Jan Zielonka and Voitech Mastny, Human Rights and Security: Europe on the Eve of a New Era. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
1991b. “Defining and Conceptualizing Progress in International Relations.” In Emmanuel Adler and Beverly Crawford, Progress in Postwar International Relations. New York: Columbia University Press. (co-author with Emmanuel Adler and Beverly Crawford)
1990b. “Traditional Values and Universal Human Rights: Caste in India.” In Claude E. Welch, Jr. and Virginia A. Leary, Asian Perspectives on Human Rights. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
1990c. “Human Rights, Individual Rights and Collective Rights.” In Jan Berting et al.,
Human Rights in a Pluralist World: Individuals and Collectivities. Westport, CT: Meckler (for theNetherlands Commission for UNESCO and the Roosevelt Study Center).
1990d. “Human Rights and Western Liberalism.” In Abdulahi Ahmed An-Na'im and Francis M. Deng, Human Rights in Africa: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
1989a. “Repression and Development: The Political Contingency of Human Rights Tradeoffs.” In David P. Forsythe, Human Rights and Development. London: Macmillan, New York: St. Martin's.
1984d. “The 'Right to Development': How Not to Link Human Rights and Development.” In Claude E. Welch, Jr. and Ronald I. Meltzer, Human Rights and Development in Africa. Albany: State University of New York Press.
2008.”Relativity and the Universal Declaration.” eJournal USA 15 (November). http://www.america.gov/publications/ejournalusa/1108.html
1999a. “Critique of the Reagan Administration” in U.S. Human Rights Policy: A 20-Year Assessment (United States Institute of Peace Special Report, June 16, 1999).
1999b. “Human Rights and Democracy” in Avi Sagi and Yedida Z. Stern (eds.), Democratic Culture, vol. 2, Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press.
1996a. “What Are Human Rights?” in Introduction to Human Rights, United States Information Agency. (Revised edition, 1998.) (French translation at http://civnet.org/civitas/africa/ droits/humrts.htm)
1996b. Human Rights Self-Monitoring: A Proposal for the Northern European Democracies, Bergen: Christian Michelsen Institute (CMI Report R 1996: 3) (co-author with Rhoda E. Howard).
1990. Confronting Revolution in Nicaragua: U.S. and Canadian Responses. New York: Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs. (co-author with Rhoda E. Howard).
Journals: American Political Science Review, Australian Journal of Political Science, BritishJournal of Political Science, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, Canadian Journal of African Studies, Comparative Political Studies, Connecticut Review, European Journal of International Relations (Editorial Committee 2004-2009), Global Governance, Human Rights Quarterly, International Affairs (International Editorial Advisory Board, 2008-2015), International Organization (Editorial Board, 1991-1996), International Relations (Editorial Board 2001-2006), International Studies Quarterly, International Theory (Editorial Board 2007- ), Journal of International Relations and Development, Journal of Peace Research, Journal of Political Philosophy, Journal of Politics, Journal of Human Rights (Editorial Board, 2002- ), Millennium, Muslim World Journal of Human Rights (Editorial Board 2004-), Nordic Journal of Human Rights (Advisory Editorial Board, 2010- ), Political Science Quarterly, Political Theory, Polity, PS, Review of International Studies (Editorial Board, 2001-2004), Soviet Union/Union Sovietique.
Publishers: Cambridge University Press, Cornell University Press, Duke University Press,Harper-Collins, Johns Hopkins University Press, McGill-Queens University Press, University of Nebraska Press, Oxford University Press, Palgrave Press, University of Pennsylvania Press, Penn State University Press, Prentice-Hall, Princeton University Press, Random House, Lynne Reinner Press, Rowman & Littlefield, Temple University Press, Westview Press.
Funding Agencies: National Endowment for the Humanities, National ScienceFoundation, Social Sciences Federation of Canada, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, U.S. Department of Education, United States Institute of Peace.
Tenure and Promotion: American University, Brown University, City University of NewYork, University of Colorado at Denver, Drexel University, Essex University, Franklin and Marshall University, Georgetown University, Georgia Technological Institute, University of California at Irvine, Keele University, Lewis and Clark College, Marquette University, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, University of Minnesota, University of Nebraska at Lincoln, Northwestern University, University of Notre Dame, University of Oregon, Santa Clara University, University of Southampton, Sussex University, Syracuse University, Trinity College, University of Washington, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of Utah, Wellesley College.
External PhD Reviewer: Australian National University, University of Sydney, Universityof Otago.