Document Type : Research Article


Assistant Professor of Law, Mofid University, Qom, Iran.


For long Diplomatic Protection was considered the patrimonial rights of states, and some international cases such as “Mavrommatis” 1924, Barcena Ttraction 1970, Avena 2004 have bolstered this view. Today, as a result of the development of human rights, it is assumed that the protection afforded to an injured individual by his government is based on the fact that whose human rights have been violated abroad by an internationally wrongful act of another State.
The United Nations International Law Commission in its efforts since 1995, through the Draft Convention on diplomatic Protection, has been able to show that no longer may diplomatic protection be considered as the exclusive right of state. This indicates that human rights have developed to such extent that they have gone beyond the traditional boundaries of the three conditions for the exercise of this rights, i.e. nationality of Claims, exhaustion of local remedies, and clean hands.  
In Islamic Law, protection of injured person is a basic principle, without regard for the issue of whether protection of an individual is the exclusive right of his government. The alliance (Agreement) of “Helf al-Fodul” before and after Islam is an example of institutionalized protection of injured person in Islamic history.
The present article, by focusing on the efforts of the ILC Draft Articles on Diplomatic protection with its human rights orientation as well as by reviewing the foundations and sources of Islamic jurisprudence, attempts to prove that the preconditions such as nationality and exhaustion of local remedies, to exercise diplomatic protection, are only effective to the extent that it is in accord with human dignity and as long as the individual is not made an instrument for the securing of the potential interests of states. 
In any event, the International Law Commission is the harbinger of a new legal work in the field of Diplomatic protection, (lex ferenda) and is not an indication of existing international commitment. (Hard law)


Main Subjects

  1. حبیبیان، مجید و نبوی، سیده شریفه: احیای حلف الفضول، سمبل عدالت در سیره رسول، اندیشه تقریب، ویژه نامه پیامبر اعظم، 1385.
  2. حمید الله محمد: حقوق و روابط بین الملی در اسلام، ترجمه: مصطفی محقق داماد، مرکز نشر علوم اسلامی، 1373،
  3. ضیایی بیگدلی، محمد رضا: اسلام و حقوق بین‌الملل، شرکت سهامی انتشار، 1369.
  4. فیوضی، رضا: مسئولیت بین‌المللی و نظریه حمایت سیاسی اتباع، جلد اول، دانشگاه تهران، 1379.
  5. کک دین، نگوین و پله، آلن: حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی، ترجمه: حسن حبیبی، انتشارات اطلاعات، ج2.
  6. ابن ابی الحدید: شرح نهج البلاغه، تحقیق: محمد ابوالفضل ابراهیم، دار الاحیاء الکتب العربیة، 1959، ج 15.
  7. ابن‌هشام: السیرة‌ النبویة، دار الاحیاء التراث العربی، بی‌تا، ج 1.
  8. البیهقی، احمد: السنن الکبری، دارالفکر، بیروت، بی‌تا، ج6.
  9. الجصاص: احکام القرآن، تحقیق: عبدالسلام محمد علی شاهین، دارالکتب العلمیة، بیروت، 1994، ج 3.
  10. حسن محمد خلیل: موقف الاسلام من العنف و العدوان و انتهاک حقوق الانسان، مطبوعات دارالشعب، 1994.
  11. سید قطب: فی ظلال القرآن، دارالشروق، القاهرة، (1402) 1982، ج 3.
  12. محمد عمر مدنی: الحمایة الدبلوماسیة مفهومها و حدودها، مجلة الدبلوماسی، العدد 4، معهد الدراسات الدبلوماسیة، السعودیة، 1984.
  13. المهیری، سعید عبدالله حارب: العلاقات الخارجیة للدولة الاسلامیة، مؤسسة الرسالة، بیروت، 1995.
  14. نمر، محمد الخلیل: اهل الذمة و الولایات العامة فی الفقه الاسلامی، المکتبة الاسلامیة، عمان، الاردن، 1409.



  1. Case concerning the Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Company, Limited, Belgium v. Spain, Judgment of 5 February 1970.
  2. CIJ Rep 1949.
  3. Crawford, James: The ILC's Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts: A Retrospect, the American Journal of International Law, Vol. 96, No.4, Oct. 2002.
  4. Draft Articles on Diplomatic Protection adopted by the International Law Commission at its fifty-eighth session.
  5. Dugard, John: First Report on Diplomatic Protection, UN Doc. A/CN.4/506. 7 March 2000.
  6. Forcese, Craig: The Capacity to Protect: Diplomatic Protection of Dual Nationals in the War on Terror, European Journal of International Law, 2006, Vol.17.
  7. Ian, Brownlie: Principles of public International law, Fifth Edition, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1998.
  8. International Law Association (2006) Toronto Conference, Diplomatic Protection of Persons and Property. 
  9. Report of the International Law Commission, Fifty-eighth session, May-9 June and 3 July-11 August 2006. Supplement No. 10 (A/61/10)
  10. Shirley, Jonathan: The role of international human rights and the law of diplomatic protection in resolving Zimbabwe's land crisis, Boston College International & Comparative Law Review, Vol. 27, 2004.
  11. Vermeer –Kunzli, Annemarieke: Restricting Discretion: Judicial Review of Diplomatic Protection, Nordic Journal of International Law, 2006, Vol.75.
  12. Vicuna, Francisco Orrego: Individuals and Non-State Entities before International Courts-Vicuna, Max plank Unby.5,2001.
  13. Warbrick, Colin and McGodrick, Dominic: Diplomatic Representations and Diplomatic Protection, International & Comparative Law Quarterly, 2002, Vol. 51.
  14. YILC: 1998, vol. I, Summary record of the 2522nd meeting.