Document Type : Research Article


PhD in International Relations, Visiting Professor at Allameh Tabatabai University


Whenever we look at the concept of "human rights" from historical point of view, we can see that this concept with different changes and variables, has been much developed and evolved. From the lawlessness to a period with a few natural rights and limited to some specific nations, to a period with universal rights. The most important concepts underlying the institutionalization of human rights in the world and also converting these concepts into the international practices, came into existence since the founding of the United Nations. Basically, the cornerstone of the United Nations is based on the acceptance of the concept of human rights. The introduction of the United Nations Charter indicated to the fundamental human rights and need to respect these rights, as noted: the international cooperation in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms... . Human Rights Council was established in 2006 (1384 SH) as the first human rights subsidiary organ of the United Nations with the aim of promotion and protection of human rights in all countries. Islamic Republic of Iran, in addition to the UN Charter which some of its articles are dedicated to human rights, has signed and ratified many of international human rights treaties. The present article tries to study the structure of the UN Human Rights Council and interactions of the Islamic Republic of Iran with it. 


Main Subjects

  1. A) Books and Articles:


    1. “United Nations Annual Session of Commission on Human Rights”, Keesing's Record of World Events, Cambridge, Vol. 48, No. 4:44762.
    1. Abasi, Majid (2003). “Human Rights Mechanisms”, in: Mehdi Zakerian, Articles on Key Concepts of International Human Rights, Tehran: Mizan. [In Persian]
    2. Eslami, Masoud (1998). “The international image of Iran and the recent presidential election”, Monthly Journal of Political and Economic Information, Vol. 11, No. 117-118. [In Persian]
    3. Holsti, K.J. (1995). Foundation of International Policy Analysis, Trans. by Bahram Mostaghimi va Masoud Tarom Sari, Tehran: Ministry of Foreign Affairs Publication Center. [In Persian]
    4. Johnson, Glenn (1999). Universal Declaration of Human Rights and its History, Trans. by Mohamad Jafar Poyandeh, Tehran: Ney. [In Persian]
    5. Mahdavian, Hossein (2007). “Establishing the Human Rights Council: The first step in Reforming the United Nations”, Journal of Politic and Economic Information, No. 223-224. [In Persian]
    6. Mehrpoor, Hossein (1996). Human Rights in International Documents and the Position of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Tehran: Etellat Publication. [In Persian]
    7. Morgenthau, Hans J (2001). The Politics Among Nations: An Endeavor For Power And Peace, Trans. by Homeyra Moshir Zadeh, Terhan: Foreign Affair Ministry Press.  [In Persian]
    8. Mousa Zadeh, Reza (2007). UN Reform and Strategy of Iran, Tehran: Counsel of Tashkhis Maslahat Nezam Publication. [In Persian]
    9. Movahed, Mohammad Ali (2004). If there is Someone in the House, Tehran: Karnamee Publication. [In Persian]
    10. Naserzadeh, Houshang (1994). Declarations of Human Rights, Tehran: Jihad Daneshgahi Publication. [In Persian]
    11. Phalsafi, Hedayt (2006). “The succession of international human rights treaties: Commitment and conflict of government obligations”, Iranian Journal of International and Comparative Law, No. 4. [In Persian]
    12. Rostami, Farzad (2008). “Human Rights Council and Islamic Republic of Iran”, Journal of Pajohesh Namee Hoghogh Bahsar, Vol. 2. [In Persian]
    13. Sharifian, Jamshid (2002). The Islamic Republic of Iran's Strategy on Human Rights in the United Nations, Tehran: Office of Political and International Studies. [In Persian]
    14. Shoshtari Zadeh, Elham (2010). Human Rights book, Tehran: Cultural Institute of International Studies and Research of Tehran Contemporary Abrar. [In Persian]
    15. Turky, Hamd (2003). Indigenous Culture and Global Challenges, Trans. by Maher Amozegar, Tehran: Amozegar . [In Persian]
    1. Abraham, M (2006). A New Chapter for Human Rights: A Handbook on Issue of Transition from the Commission on Human Rights to the Human Rights Council, International service for Human Rights and the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.
    2. Alston, P (1992). “The Commission on Human Rights”, in: P.Alston, The United Nations and Human Rights, clarendon press.
    3. Alston, P (2006). “Reconceiving the UN Human Rights Regime: Challenges Confronting the New Human Rights Council”, Melbourne Journal of International law, No. 7.
    4. Amnesty International; 2005, Meeting the Challenge: Transforming the Commission on Human Rights into a Human Rights Council, Amnesty International.
    5. Arbour, Louise (2005A). Statement by Ms Louise Arbour, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, 14 Mar.
    6. Arbour, Louise (2005B). Speech by Ms Louise Arbour, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, 20 Apr .
    1. Hunter, Shireen T; (1990). Iran and the World: Continuity in a Revolutionary Decade, Bloomington: India University.
    1. Joint statement on UN Reform; (2005). Amnesty International, Public Statement, AI Index: Ior 41/034/2005(public), News service No. 089, 12.
    1. Shiv, Lal (1985). Iran: Selected Political Documents, New Delhi: The Election Archive.
    1. Upton, H (2007).  General Assembly resolution 60/251, The Human Rights Council: First Impressions and future challenges, Human Rights law Review 29, 7.
    2. Warbrick, Colin (2006).  “Current Development, Public International law, From Un Commission on Human Rights to Un Human Rights Council: One Step forwards or Two Steps sideways”, ICLQ, Vol. 55, July.
    3. Yunfei, Zhang; 2006, “New Wine in a New Bottle? The Human Rights Council: Opportunities and Challenges”, Foreign Affairs Journal, No. 81, Autumn.


    B) Documents:


    1. A/HRC/WG.6/7/IRN/1 , 18 November 2009
    2. A/HRC/WG.6/7/IRN/2, 25 November 2009
    3. A/HRC/WG.6/7/IRN/3 , 30 November 2009
    4. A/HRC/14/12, 12 March 2010
    5. A/HRC/DEC/14/111, 23 June 2010
    6. A/HRC/16/L.25/Rev.1
    7. A/HRC/16/75
    8. A/59/2005, 21 March 2005.
    9. UN Doc A/60/251, 3 Apr 2006.
    10. A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility, A/59/565, 2 December 2004.
    11. UN Doc.A/60/L.48, A/Res/61251/. Available at depts/dhl/resguide/r60.htm


    C) Website:


    1. Habibzadeh, Tavakol “The Islamic Republic of Iran and the right to international human rights treaties”. [In Persian]
    3. Zanganeh, Hamid; "The Birth of a New Institution at the United Nations: Human Rights Council", 2006. [In Persian]
    2. Kirgis,  Fredric L (2005). “International Aspects of the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document”, October insight 051004.html.,,
    3. Lyons, Scott R (2006). “The United Nations Human Rights Council”, March 27. See: insight/2006/03/ insights 0603270/html
    4. Pace, John (2006). “The UN Human Rights Council: Opportunities and Challenges”, April 3, 2006. See: /2006/04/un_human_rights_council_opportunities_php
    5. The establishment of the Human Rights Council, opportunities and threats for Iran, Center for Strategic Research; Vice-President for Foreign Policy Studies. [In Persian] 8 abtid=018depid=448semid=173