Document Type : Research Article


PhD Student in Modern Philosophy, Mofid University, Qom, Iran.


Racism in its wide sense means that some people are superior to others because of their race. In some ethical systems, such as Kant's philosophical system, the subject of racism, like so many other issues, has not received much attention. But that does not mean that we cannot considering racism under that system.
In this essay, we attempt based on Kant's ethical system to elaborate and infer Kant's view of racism by describing "authority" as the premise of any moral act. In the research conclusions, it will be concluded that Kant, on the basis of his ethical system, cannot justify racism. In Kant's view, moral virtue is a task or an act in accordance with the task, which cannot be related to the type of the active subject. The international human rights system will be studied as a general reference in addressing these issues in the real context of society. It has been attempted in the reviews of the international human rights system to discuss the emancipation of the human race for its inferiority and the inherent value of human beings in Kant and this system.



    1. Aftab, Mohammad Reza (2014). The Legal Concept of Positive Discrimination in the Human Rights System, with Emphasis on the Disabled and Veterans, M.Sc. Thesis, Tehran: University of Tehran. [In Persian]
    2. Bird, Graham (ed.) (2006). A Companion to Kant, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
    3. Cohen, Andrew I. (ed.) (2006). Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
    4. Dreier, James (ed.) (2007). Contemporary Debates in Moral Theory, 2ed, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
    5. Fazlikhani, Akram (2017). “Study of the Rights of Minorities in the West and Iran”, Quarterly Journal of Studies on the Protection of Women's Rights, No. 7, p. 135. [In Persian]
    6. Guyer, Paul (2014). Kant, 2ed, New York: Routledge.
    7. Kant, Emanuel (1959). Foundations of Metaphysics of Morals, 2nd ed. Revised, trans. L.W Beck, New York: Macmillan.
    8. Kant, Emmanuel (1999). Lessons of Philosophy of Ethics, translated by Manouchehr Sanei Dar Hobidi, Tehran: Naghsh-o-Negar Publications. [In Persian]
    9. Kant, Emmanuel (1990). Foundation for the Metaphysics of Ethics, translated by Hamid Enayat, Tehran: Kharazmi Publishing Company. [In Persian]
    10. Maleki, Alireza and Mohsen Javadi (2016). “Racism in Kant's Philosophy of Ethics based on Kant's Absolute”, Quarterly Journal of Ethical Research, Vol. 7, Issue 1, Fall, pp. 181-195. [In Persian]
    11. Mami, Albert (1986). “Today's Racism, our Problem and Theirs”, UNESCO Message, No. 193, p. 14. [In Persian]
    12. Rasekh, Mohammad (2009). “Theory of Truth”, Quarterly Journal of Reproduction and Infertility, Vol. 10, No. 4, p.301. [In Persian]
    13. Salman, Robert C. & Kathleen M. Higgins (2016). History of Western Philosophy: The Age of German Idealism (Vol. 6), translated by Seyyed Massoud Hosseini, Tehran: Hekmat Publications. [In Persian]
    14. Sanei Darhobidi, Manouchehr (1999). “Authority and Freedom in Kant's Philosophy”, Philosophy Letter, No. 8, pp. 89-100. [In Persian]
    15. Shirazi, Nabiollah (2013). US Performance in Eliminating Racial Discrimination with Emphasis on International Documents, M.Sc. Thesis, Payame Noor University, South Tehran Branch. [In Persian]