نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه حقوق بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل، دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران.

چکیده

طبق ماده 7 اساس‏نامه رم، جنایت آپارتاید به اقدامات، سیاست‏ها و رویه‏های مبتنی بر استیلاء نژادی و تبعیض‏های نظام‏مند (Systematic Racism) اطلاق می‏گردد. بر اساس این تعریف، آپارتاید وراء مفهوم تاریخی ذیل «رژیم حاکم بر آفریقای جنوبی (1994– 1948)»، به عنوان یک جنایت علیه بشریت همچون شکنجه و برده‏داری شناخته می‏شود. به دلیل برخی شباهت‏ها در نظام حقوقی و همچنین ریشه‏های تاسیس، دو رژیم صهیونیستی و آپارتاید تا دهه 1990 میلادی به عنوان پدیده‏های مشابه در حالت مقایسه قرار گرفته و برخی اسناد بین‏المللی نیز این دو را در کنار هم مورد اشاره قرار می‏دادند. در این نوشتار ضمن برشماری دلایل این مقایسه تاریخی و همچنین سیر افول این روند از سال 1991که با لغو قطعنامه 3379 مجمع عمومی (شناخت صهیونیسم به عنوان نژادپرستی) آغاز گردید، در پرتو تحولات سال‏های اخیر که حاکی از رویه‏ای کاملا متفاوت می‏باشد، امکان بازگشت روند فوق‏الذکر و شرایط لازم برای شناسایی مجدد رژیم صهیونیستی به عنوان نوعی از آپارتاید، با استفاده از داده‌های کتابخانه‌ای و کاربست روش توصیفی تحلیلی،  مورد بررسی قرار می‏گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Feasibility Study of the Re-Attribution of Crime of Apartheid to Israel

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mostafa Fazaeli 1
  • Emad Oboudiyat 2

1 Associate professor, Faculty of Law, University of Qom, Qom, Iran.

2 Ph.D. Student of International Law, University of Qom, Qom, Iran.

چکیده [English]

According to Article 7 of the Rome Statute, the crime of Apartheid refers to actions, policies, and courses of conduct with the purpose of maintaining an institutionalized regime of systematic racism and racial domination. Based on this definition, the word "Apartheid" will not only refer to the historical regime of South Africa (1948-1994) but is also recognized as a crime against humanity on par with torture and slavery. Due to certain similarities in legal systems and roots of establishment, Israel and the Apartheid Regime of South Africa have been considered to be analogous in various international documents sponsored by the United Nations until 1991.
This study aims to analyze the historical rationale behind this recognition and the reversal of course by the United Nations General Assembly, which was initiated with the revocation of A/RES/3379 resolution (the equation of Zionism with racism). Furthermore, in the light of recent developments on domestic and international levels, it seems several unaligned trends are gaining ground in this respect to reaffirm the previous attribution of the crime of Apartheid to Israel. Through using E-Library data and employing the descriptive-analytical method, the veracity of the said trends, their projection, and their perseverance will be further discussed in this paper.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Apartheid
  • Zionism
  • Racial Discrimination
  • Israel
  • International Criminal Court

A) Book and Articles

Farsakh, Leila. “Apartheid, Israel and Palestinian Statehood.” Israel and South Africa: Many Faces of Apartheid.  London: Zed Books, 2015.
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B) International Documents

CERD (Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination), "CERD/C/2007/1: Concluding Observations of the Committee on the tenth to thirteenth periodic reports of Israel". Adopted by the Committee on June 13, 2007. Available at: https://undocs.org/CERD/C/2007/1. (Last Retrieved: August 26th, 2021)
CERD (Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination), “CERD/C/ISR/CO/13: Guidelines for the CERD-specific document to be submitted by states parties under article 9, paragraph 1, of the convention”. Adopted by the Committee on June 14, 2007. Available at: https://www.un.org/ga/search/ view_doc.asp?symbol=CERD/C/ISR/CO/13. (Last Retrieved: August 26th, 2021)
CERD (Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination), “CERD/STA /ISR/8680: Prevention of Racial Discrimination, Including Early Warning and Urgent Action Procedures”. Adopted by the Committee on May 10, 2018. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CERD/ Shared%20 Documents/ISR/INT _CERD_STA_ISR_8680_E.pdf. (Last Retrieved: August 26th, 2021)
CERD (Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination), “CERD/C/103/R6: Decision on the admissibility of the inter-State communication submitted by the State of Palestine against Israel”. Adopted by the Committee on May 20, 2021. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CERD/Shared%20Documents/ 1_Global/CERD_C_103_R-6_9416_E.pdf. (Last Retrieved: August 26th, 2021)
General Assembly, “A/RES/2106 (XX): International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination”. Adopted by 20th session of General Assembly on December 21, 1965. Available at: https://undocs.org/en/a/res/ 2106(xx). (Last Retrieved: August 26th, 2021)
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General Assembly, “A/RES/3379: Elimination of all forms of racial discrimination”. Adopted by 30th session of General Assembly on November 10, 1975. Available at: https://undocs.org/a/res/3379(XXX). (Last Retrieved: August 26th, 2021)
General Assembly, “A/RES/44/25: Convention on the Rights of the Child”. Adopted by 44th session of General Assembly on November 20, 1989. Available at: https://undocs.org/en/A/RES/44/25. (Last Retrieved: August 26th, 2021)
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C) Websites

AFSC [American Friends Service Committee] Report, 2020. Last Retrieved: August 26th, 2021.  “Restricted Movement in the Occupied Palestinian Territory”. https://www.afsc.org/resource/restricted-movement-occupied-palestinian-territory.
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Baruch, Ilan and Liel, Alon. “It’s apartheid, say Israeli ambassadors to South Africa”. GroundUp News Agency, 2021. Last Retrieved: August 26th, 2021. https://www.groundup.org.za/article/israeli-ambassadors-compare-israel-south-africa/.
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