نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد روابط بین الملل، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری رشته روابط بین الملل، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

جنبش مدنی «جان سیاه‌پوستان اهمیت دارد» تأثیری بسیار عمیق بر رویکرد بین‌المللی دولت آمریکا در زمینه حقوق بشر گذاشته است. این جنبش در سال 2020 به اوج خود رسید و تأثیری عمیق بر فرهنگ و سیاست آمریکا گذاشت. در آن سال حزب دموکرات تصمیم گرفت که با این جنبش همراه شود و حزب جمهوری‌خواه درعوض تصمیم گرفت با آن مقابله کند. بنیان رویکرد آمریکا به حقوق بشر پیش از این در استثناگرایی آمریکایی بوده است که در آن آمریکا مظهر عالی حقوق بشر است منافع آمریکا به‌عنوان یک ابرقدرت با بهبود وضعیت حقوق بشر برابر دانسته شده است اما این جنبش این روایت از امریکا را به‌چالش می‌کشد و ادعا می‌کند که نقض حقوق بشر بخش ناگفته داستان آمریکا است و بدون تبعیض علیه سیاه‌پوستان نمی‌توان داستان آمریکا را به‌درستی روایت کرد. دموکرات‌ها تحت‌تأثیر این جنبش روایت خود از استثناگرایی آمریکایی را تغییر داده‌اند. دراثر این تحول در سیاست داخلی دولت بایدن در سطح بین‌المللی نیز اولویت حقوق بشر را افزایش داده و رویکردی هنجاری‌تر نسبت به اسلاف خود از سال 1980 تاکنون پیش گرفته است و روی به انتقاد از خود نیز آورده و همچنین نسبت به متحدین ناقض حقوق بشر آمریکا نیز به‌شکل نسبی سخت‌گیرتر شده است. پیش‌بینی می‌شود که دولت‌های دموکرات آمریکا تا آینده نزدیک رویکرد هنجاری‌تری درقبال حقوق بشر اتخاذ خواهند کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of the “Black Lives Matter” Movement on the International Approach of the US Government to Human Rights

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nasrin Mosaffa 1
  • Ali Nazifpour 2

1 Professor of International Relations, Faculty of Law & Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 Ph.D. Student of International Relations, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

The “Black Lives Matter” civil rights movement has left profound effects on the international approach of the US government toward human rights. This movement reached its peak in 2020 and profoundly affected culture, politics, and policy making in the US. The two major parties reacted differently – the Democrats showed support but Republicans opposed it. These reactions help us analyze the US international policy toward human rights. US human rights policy has been embedded in the theory of “American exceptionalism”, which considered US the best incarnation of human rights and its interests as a superpower equal to its protection. But the Black Lives Matter movement challenges this narrative and claims that human rights violations are an untold part of this story. The Democrats have adopted a new approach to American exceptionalism in response which considers The US to have an exceptional potential to embody human rights values but this potential is yet to be realized. Joe Biden has also prioritized human rights more than his predecessors since 1980s by criticizing the US and also adopting harsher policies toward US allies that violate human rights. It can be predicted that the Democrats will adopt a more normative approach toward human rights in the future.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Key words: Black Lives Matter
  • American exceptionalism
  • US foreign policy
  • human rights
  • racism
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