نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای حقوق کیفری و جرم شناسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

گرچه اغلب هرجا سخن از حمایت از بزه‌دیدگان آسیب‌پذیر ازجمله زنان به‌میان‌ می‌آید، ذهن همگان با رویکردی بزهکارمحور به سمت جرم‌انگاری‌های خاص یا تشدید کیفر معطوف می‌گردد؛ اما پرسش این است که آیا چنین رویکردی به مصلحت بزه‌دیده بوده و حمایت حداکثری از وی را به دنبال خواهد داشت یا خیر. به نظر،توسل همیشگی به مداخلۀ کیفری برای توقف بز‌ه‌دیدگی زنان نه‌تنها کافی نیست، بلکه گاه مداخلات کیفری می‌تواند گذشته از تحمیل هزینه‌های قابل‌توجه، به تشدید یا تکرار بزه‌دیدگی منجر گردد. به نظر، پیش‌بینی گزینه‌های حمایتی فراکیفری، جرم‌زدایی یا کیفرزدایی از رفتارهایی که برخی زنان در شرایط خاص ناگزیر به ارتکاب آن هستند به جای تمرکز صرف بر کیفردهی بزهکار، حمایت مناسب‌تری را از زنان بزه‌دیده فراهم می‌کند. در این نوشتار تلاش شده است تا به شیوه‌ای تحلیلی- توصیفی با اشاره به قوانین کنونی کیفری و کاستی‌های آن در حمایت از زنان بزه‌دیده، پیشنهادهایی نظیر جرم‌زدایی از سقط جنین در زنای به عنف و یا استقبال از گزینه‌های فراکیفری در جرایمی نظیر خشونت خانگی با استفاده از آموزه‌های عدالت ترمیمی به عنوان یک رویکرد جایگزین یا تکمیلی در نظر گرفته شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Criminal Retreat in Support of Women Victims

نویسندگان [English]

  • shirin bayat 1
  • Shahla Moazami 2

1 Ph.D. Student in Criminal Law and Criminology at Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Often when speaking of supporting vulnerable victims, including women, everyone's offender-oriented approach turns to a specific criminalization or aggravation of punishment, however the question is whether such an approach is in the best interest of the victim and will lead to maximum support for her. It seems that constant recourse to criminal intervention is not only insufficient for stopping victimization of women, but sometimes criminal intervention apart from significant costs can lead to aggravation or recurrence of victimization.  It seems that providing extra-criminal protective options, decriminalization, or depenalization of behaviors that some women are forced to commit in certain circumstances provides better protection for women victims rather than focusing solely on criminal punishment. In this article, an attempt has been made to use analytical-descriptive method, while referencing the current criminal law and its shortcomings in protecting women victims, to suggest some measures such as decriminalization of abortion after rape or accepting extra-criminal options in crimes including domestic violence in light of restorative justice teachings as an alternative or supplementary approach.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Extra-Criminal Protection
  • Women Victims
  • Criminal Retreat
  • Decriminalization

A) Books & Articles

Arefi, Morteza; Mohammad Jafar Habibzadeh; Jalil Omidy & Mohammad Farajiha. “The Contexts of Criminal Intervention in the Field of Poverty, from the Policy of Fighting Poverty to the Policy of Fighting the Poor.” Quarterly Journal of Criminal Law Research, no. 26 (2019): 75-107. [In Persian]
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Fletcher, George. Political Theory and Criminal Law. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Gholam Hossein, Elham, and Mohsen Borhani. An Introduction to Public Criminal Law. Vol. I. Tehran: Mizan, 2016. [In Persian]
Gholami, Hossein. “The Principle of Minimal Criminal Law.” Quarterly Journal of Criminal Law Research, no. 2 (2012): 31-65. [In Persian]
Hosseini Mohammadabad, Marjan and Ali Chehkandi Nejad. “Jurisprudential and Legal Study of Abortion Caused by Rape.” Quarterly Journal of Jurisprudence and History of Civilization of Islamic Nations, no. 47 (2016): 37-58. [In Persian]
Khodadi, Abolghasem and Maryam Iftikhar. “Rehabilitation of the Victim in the Light of Clinical Victimology.” Journal of Criminal Law Research, no. 17 (2016): 127-154. [In Persian]
Mahmoudi Janki, Firooz. “Decriminalization as a Change.” Journal of Private Law Studies, no. 1 (2008): 321-335. [In Persian]
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Mirenayat, Parvin; Mohammad Reza Abedi & Razieh Izadi. “The Effect of Psychotherapy Based on Performance Analysis on the Quality of Life and Self-esteem of Prostitutes.” Journal of Applied Psychology, no. 68 (2017): 22-36. [In Persian]
Najafi Aberandabadi, Ali Hossein. “From Classical Criminal Justice to Restorative Justice.” Specialized Journal of Razavi University of Islamic Sciences, no. 9 and 10 (2003): 18-26. [In Persian]
Nikzad, Abbas and Gholam Ali Joursarai. “Study of Abortion from a Jurisprudential Perspective.” Quarterly Journal of Islam and Salamat (Health), no. 1 (2014): 29-37. [In Persian]
Nobahar, Rahim and Fatemeh Saffari. “Victim Interests and the Qualities of Criminalization.” Journal of Dadgostari, no. 93 (2015): 231-258. [In Persian]
Nobahar, Rahim. “Trafficking in Women for Prostitution from the Perspective of Islamic Teachings with a View to International Law and Iranian Law.” Quarterly Journal of Modarres, no. 47 (2006): 187-220. [In Persian]
Rezvani, Soodabeh and Maryam Ghanizadeh Bafghi. “Safe Homes as a Clinic for Domestic Violent Women.” Legal Journal of Dadgostari, no. 106 (2019): 143-167. [In Persian]
Safiri, Khadijeh and Zahra Rezaei Nasab. “Qualitative Studies of the Phenomenon of Self-Immolation of Women in Ilam.” Quarterly Journal of Women and Society, no. 1 (2016): 123-142. [In Persian]
Schonsheck, Jonathan. On Criminalization. Netherland: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994.
Shahpour, Tahmineh and Tahmourth Bashirieh. “Approach to the New Iranian Legislative System Based on the Theory of Labeling.” Journal of Legal Research, no. 87 (2019): 275-302. [In Persian]
Shekarchi Asadollahi, Leila; Mehrnaz Azad Yekta & Seyed Mahmoud Mirzamani Bafghi. “The Effectiveness of Couple Relationship Enrichment Training Based on Emotional Approach on the Quality of Marital Relationships.” New Advances in Behavioral Sciences, no. 32 (2019): 1-24. [In Persian]
Thomson, Judith Jarvis. “A Defense of Abortion.” Philosophy and Public Affairs, no. 1 (1971): 37-56.
Zehr, Howard. Restorative Justice. Trans. by Hossein Gholami. Tehran: Majd Scientific and Cultural Assembly, 2003. [In Persian]

B) WEBSITES

Deryl Goldenberg, “why men are resistant to therapy”, PSYCHALIVE, 17 Oct 2021
http://psychalive.org/why-men-resist-therapy
www. Euronews.com/2019/06/05-noa-pothoven-abused-girl-17
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