نوع مقاله : مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری روابط بین الملل، گروه روابط بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه روابط بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

نظریه حقوق طبیعی، آموزه‌ای تحول آفرین و انقلابی بود که به تدریج از اواخر دوران میانه و اوایل دوران مدرن مورد توجه قرار گرفت. انگاره اصلی این نظریه، شناسایی و توجیه حقوقی است که انسان به واسطه طبیعت انسانی از آن برخوردار است. این انگاره به دغدغه جدی متفکران عصر روشنگری از جمله هوگو گروسیوس، تامس هابز، جان لاک، امانوئل کانت و تامس پین بدل گردید و به شکل مشهودی در مفاد «اعلامیه استقلال آمریکا» و «اعلامیه حقوق بشر و شهروند فرانسه» ظهور و بروز یافت. در مقاله پیش‌رو تلاش داریم روند فراز و فرود نظریه حقوق طبیعی در ساحت اندیشه سیاسی متفکران عصر روشنگری را مورد بررسی قرار دهیم. ادعای مقاله این است که نقدهایی چون بی‌توجهی به سامان و نظم اجتماعی و سنت‌های مورد احترام جامعه سیاسی، انتزاعی بودن و فردگرایی که به اشکال گوناگون در نظام فکری برخی از متفکران از جمله ادموند برک، جرمی بنتام، فردریش هگل و کارل مارکس مطرح گردید، سبب شد نظریه حقوق طبیعی به تدریج از اوایل قرن نوزدهم میلادی به حاشیه رود. با این حال، این پایان کار نظریه حقوق طبیعی نبود و آموزه‌های آن با بیان‌ها، فهم‌ها و اهداف متفاوت در اندیشه سیاسی و حقوقی معاصر امتداد یافته و توسط تعدادی از اندیشمندان از جمله جان رالز، رابرت نوزیک و جان تاسیولاس پیگیری شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Rise and Decline of the Theory of Natural Rights in the Intellectual Tradition of Enlightenment Era Thinkers

نویسندگان [English]

  • mustafa saburi 1
  • Homeira Moshirzadeh 2

1 PhD in International Relations, Department of International Relations, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of International Relations, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

The theory of natural rights was a revolutionary doctrine that gradually gained attention. The main idea of this theory is to identify the rights that humans have due to human nature. This idea became a serious concern of Enlightenment thinkers such as Hugo Grotius, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Immanuel Kant and Thomas Paine, and it appeared in the provisions of the "American Declaration of Independence" and the "French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen". In this article, we are trying to examine the Rise and Decline of the theory of natural rights in the perspective of Enlightenment thinkers. The claim of the article is that criticisms such as disregard to social order and traditions of political society, abstraction and individualism, which were raised in various forms in the thought system of some thinkers such as Edmund Burke, Jeremy Bentham, Friedrich Hegel and Karl Marx, It caused the theory of natural rights to be gradually marginalized from the beginning of the 19th century. However, this was not the end of natural law theory and its teachings have been extended with different expressions and understandings in contemporary political and legal thought and have been pursued by a number of thinkers including John Rawls, Robert Nozick and John Tasioulas.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Natural rights
  • political thought
  • Enlightenment era
  • human rights
سیاهه منابع
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