نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار، دپارتمان فلسفه، دانشگاه مفید، قم، ایران.

چکیده

در این مقاله تلاش می‌شود از چنین نظریه‌ای دفاع شود: معقول است باور کنیم حق حیات، انحصاراً حقی الهی است؛ یعنی فقط خداوند است که (اخلاقاً/شرعاً/قانوناً/...) مجاز است احکام مربوط به حق حیات (و ممات) را وضع و صادر کند. برای دفاع از این نظریه، پس از بیان چند تعریف و نکتۀ مقدماتی، دو استدلال به شرح زیر صورت‌بندی و ارائه می‌شود: استدلال نخست بر مبنای جدلی‌الطرفین بودن احکام مربوط به حق حیات، و استدلال دوم بر مبنای بررسی ریشۀ حقوق برای انسان‌ها‌. در ادامه برخی شواهد درون‌دینی برای تأیید نظریه ارائه می‌شوند. سپس، و در بخش نتیجه، برخی مزایا و لوازم نظریه نیز به اختصار تام بیان می‌شود. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Right to Life, a Divine Right or a Human Right?

نویسنده [English]

  • Mir Saeid Mousavi Karimi

Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Mofid University, Qom, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Undoubtedly, the right to life is the most important of all rights. Regarding this point, the fundamental question is, who has the authority to make laws and take action resulting in humans being killed? In response to this question, in this paper, I aim to defend the thesis that only God has the (moral/legal/religious) authority to make and issue the laws surrounding life and death. So, it is rational to believe that the right to life is restrictively a Divine right and not a human right. The paper is organized as follows: after introducing some elementary points and definitions, two arguments in favor of the above thesis will be formulated. In the first argument, by laying out some thought experiments, it is shown that human laws concerning civilians’ life are paradoxical and implausible. The second argument is based on exploring the origin of the right to life. In the last part of the paper, some implications and advantages of the favored thesis will be stated in brief.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Right to Life
  • Divine
  • Human
  • Antinomy
  • Utilitarianism
  • Consequentialism
  • Virtue Ethics
سیاهه منابع
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